Periodic Law Review

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  1. ___________: He listed elements in order of increasing atomic mass.
    Dmitri Mendeleev
  2. ________: He rearranged the table by increasing atomic number. Not much change, only slight rearranging.
    Henry Moseley
  3. _______: properties of elements are the periodic function of their atomic numbers.
    Modern periodic law
  4. A repeating patter of properties occur every __________ elements.
    2, 8, 8, 16, 16, 32
  5. Noble gases, or _____ gases, or ____ gases: Group ___. A stable ___ in their valence shell. __ and ___ sublevels are filled. Very _____.
    • inert
    • rare
    • 18
    • octet
    • s, p
    • inactive
  6. Representative elements, or ______ elements: __ and ___ block. They show ____ chemical properties. The other most (valence) s and p orbitals are _____ ______.
    • main-group
    • s, p
    • partially filled
  7. Transition metals, __ block. Similar _____ and _____. ___ or ___ valence electrons. Most of their compounds are colored, the color is determined by: _______ (charge), and the ____ they combine with. One of these (the one that is ______) creates the color.
    • D
    • chemically, physically
    • 1, 2
    • oxidating state
    • anion
  8. Metals tend to form ____ (charge: __), while nonmetals tend to form ___ (charge: __)
    • cations +
    • anions -
  9. Inner-transition/________ metals. __ block. ____ similar chemically- __ or ___valence electrons. Outer ___ shells are very similar-- electrons are being added to the 2nd shell in __ sublevel.
    • rare-earth
    • F
    • Very
    • 1, 2
    • two
    • F
  10. _______ of properties: how properties of elements change as you move across a period or down a group.
    periodicity
  11. Periodicity of covalent atomic radius?
    • Across a period -> smaller.
    • Down a group -> bigger
  12. What 3 factors determine the size of an atom?
    • 1.) protons pull on the electrons --> smaller
    • 2.) electrons repel each other --> larger
    • 3.) The number of electron shells. Inner electron shells produce a shielding effect from the nucleus to the outer electrons, decreasing their attraction to the nucleus --> larger
  13. Periodicity of ionization energy (energy needed to remove an electron)?
    • across a period --> higher
    • Down a group --> lower
  14. Periodicity of electron affinity (the ease by which atoms gain electrons) ?
    • Across a period --> higher (more negative- loss of energy)
    • Down a group --> lower ( more positive- gain of energy)
  15. Periodicity of ionic size?
    • Across a period --> decrease (+1,+2,+3), big increase (-3), decrease (-2, -1)
    • Down a group --> increase
  16. Periodicity of electronegativity (a desire for shared electrons. The ability of elements to attract electrons when forming bonds)
    • Across a period --> higher
    • Down a group --> Lower
  17. Alkali metals all have __ valence electron. Good conductors, oxidize quickly, not found free in nature. All react with water to produce H2 and _____ ______.
    • 1
    • metallic hydroxides
  18. Alkaline-earth metals all have ___ valence electrons. Low density, harder than alkali, less active. oxdize in air. Form _____ _____, and are extracted from ___ thus their name.
    • 2
    • metallic hydroxides
    • ores
  19. Aluminum group: 3 valence electrons.

    Carbon group: 4 valence electrons (this group contains ____ types of elements- metals, metalloids, non-metals)

    Nitrogen group: 5 valence electrons.

    Oxygen group: 6 valence electrons.
    all
  20. Halogens: ___ valence electrons. Most reactive: _______. The only family with 3 phases (___, ___,_____). _____ found free in nature. Most halogens are found as ____ with group 1 and 2 metals.
    • 7
    • fluorine
    • gas, solid, liquid
    • never
    • salts
  21. Lantanides: ___ elements after __.
    Actinides: ___ elements after __.
    • 14 La
    • 14 Ac
  22. ____________: an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic number so that elements with similar properties fall in the same group.
    periodic table
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Periodic Law Review
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