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___________: He listed elements in order of increasing atomic mass.
________: He rearranged the table by increasing atomic number. Not much change, only slight rearranging.
_______: properties of elements are the periodic function of their atomic numbers.
Modern periodic law
A repeating patter of properties occur every __________ elements.
2, 8, 8, 16, 16, 32
Noble gases, or _____ gases, or ____ gases: Group ___. A stable ___ in their valence shell. __ and ___ sublevels are filled. Very _____.
- s, p
Representative elements, or ______ elements: __ and ___ block. They show ____ chemical properties. The other most (valence) s and p orbitals are _____ ______.
- s, p
- partially filled
Transition metals, __ block. Similar _____ and _____. ___ or ___ valence electrons. Most of their compounds are colored, the color is determined by: _______ (charge), and the ____ they combine with. One of these (the one that is ______) creates the color.
- chemically, physically
- 1, 2
- oxidating state
Metals tend to form ____ (charge: __), while nonmetals tend to form ___ (charge: __)
Inner-transition/________ metals. __ block. ____ similar chemically- __ or ___valence electrons. Outer ___ shells are very similar-- electrons are being added to the 2nd shell in __ sublevel.
_______ of properties: how properties of elements change as you move across a period or down a group.
Periodicity of covalent atomic radius?
- Across a period -> smaller.
- Down a group -> bigger
What 3 factors determine the size of an atom?
- 1.) protons pull on the electrons --> smaller
- 2.) electrons repel each other --> larger
- 3.) The number of electron shells. Inner electron shells produce a shielding effect from the nucleus to the outer electrons, decreasing their attraction to the nucleus --> larger
Periodicity of ionization energy (energy needed to remove an electron)?
- across a period --> higher
- Down a group --> lower
Periodicity of electron affinity (the ease by which atoms gain electrons) ?
- Across a period --> higher (more negative- loss of energy)
- Down a group --> lower ( more positive- gain of energy)
Periodicity of ionic size?
- Across a period --> decrease (+1,+2,+3), big increase (-3), decrease (-2, -1)
- Down a group --> increase
Periodicity of electronegativity (a desire for shared electrons. The ability of elements to attract electrons when forming bonds)
- Across a period --> higher
- Down a group --> Lower
Alkali metals all have __ valence electron. Good conductors, oxidize quickly, not found free in nature. All react with water to produce H2 and _____ ______.
Alkaline-earth metals all have ___ valence electrons. Low density, harder than alkali, less active. oxdize in air. Form _____ _____, and are extracted from ___ thus their name.
Aluminum group: 3 valence electrons.
Carbon group: 4 valence electrons (this group contains ____ types of elements- metals, metalloids, non-metals)
Nitrogen group: 5 valence electrons.
Oxygen group: 6 valence electrons.
Halogens: ___ valence electrons. Most reactive: _______. The only family with 3 phases (___, ___,_____). _____ found free in nature. Most halogens are found as ____ with group 1 and 2 metals.
- gas, solid, liquid
Lantanides: ___ elements after __.
Actinides: ___ elements after __.
____________: an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic number so that elements with similar properties fall in the same group.