Water, Electrolyte and Acid Base
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who has more water a child or adult?
a baby’s weight is as much as 75% water, young adult men average 55 to 63% water because they have more muscle tissue, which contains a great deal of water while women average slightly less (52%) because they have more Adipose tissue, which is nearly free of water
Intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment
includes water and electrolytes in the several trillion cells of the body, it has high concentrations of Potassium, Phosphate, Magnesium and Sulfate ions, it has lesser concentration of Sodium, Chloride and Bicarbonate ions, has a greater concentration of protein than plasma
Extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment
includes all the fluid outside the cells and it constitutes about 37% by volume of the total body water, high concentrations of Sodium, Chloride and Bicarbonate ions and has lesser Phosphate, Magnesium, Potassium and Sulfate ions
what contains the most protein?
The blood plasma contains more protein than either lymph or interstitial fluid
what regulate the movement of water and electrolytes from one fluid compartment to another?
Hydrostatic Pressure and Osmotic Pressure.
Why are sodium ion concentrations important in fluid movement regulation
cell swells because of increase of sodium ion inside the cell than outside, water enters into the cell by osmosis and in contrast, the cell shrinks when the extrcellular fluid is higher in sodium ion
A person is in a state of Water Balance when daily gains and losses are equal and it is controlled by homeostasis. Most of that volume about 90% comes from ingested fluids, some comes from food, and a smaller amount, about 10%, is derived from the water produced during cellular metabolism, which is called Water Metabolism
Greatest amount of water loss
The greatest amount of water, approximately 60%, is lost through the Urine. 34% of water loss occurs through evaporation from respiratory passages, of water that diffuses through the skin and by perspiration. Approximately 6% is lost in feces
regulate water output
A hormone called Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), released from the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
most important electrolytes in body fluid
The most important electrolytes in the body fluids and are required for cellular function are Na, K, P, Mn, S, Cl, HCO3, and H ions. They are obtained from foods, drinking water, beverages and byproducts of metabolic reactions
a person may experience a salt craving, which is a strong desire to eat salty foods.
Our body loses electrolytes through urine, perspiration and feces. Their output is due to temperature and strenuous exercise. The greatest electrolyte output is as a result of kidney function and urine production.
They are chemically reactive and participate in metabolism. They determine the electrical potential across cell membranes. They strongly affect the osmolarity of the body fluids and the body’s water content and distribution.
sodium and potassium
Both sodium and potassium ions are regulated by a hormone called Aldosterone, which is secreted from adrenal cortex and calcium concentration is regulated by both Calcitonin from the thyroid gland and parathyroid hormone from parathyroid glands
sodium ions account for....
the positively charged ions in extracellular fluids and are reabsorbed in the DCTs and collecting ducts of the nephrons by the action of aldosterone.
Acids, are electrolytes that release H+ into a solution, and bases binds to H+ and remove them from solution
bases release hydroxide ions (OH-), which react with H+ to form water.
pH of blood and tissue fluid
normally have a pH of 7.35 to 7.45 and it is the concentration of H+ at equilibrium that determines the pH
Sources of hydrogen ions
Aerobic respiration of glucose that produces Carbonic Acid, Anaerobic respiration of glucose, Incomplete oxidation of fatty acids, Oxidation of amino acids containing sulfur, ) Breakdown (Hydrolysis) of phosphoproteins and nucleic acids
Acid-base buffer systems
A chemical buffer is a substance that binds H+ and removes it from the solution as its concentration begins to rise or releases H+ into solution as its concentration falls. When two chemical buffers function as mixtures, they are called Buffer System.
Bicarbonate buffer system
The bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) acts as a weak base and carbonic acid (HCO3) acts a weak acid. In both ICF AND ECF.
Phosphate buffer system
It is present in both ICF and ECF and it is important in the control of hydrogen ion concentration in the ICF and in renal tubular fluid and urine. This buffer system consists of dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4-) acts as a weak acid and monohydrogen phosphate (HPO4-2) acts as a weak base.
Protein buffer system
Proteins are more concentrated than either bicarbonate or phosphate buffers especially in the ICF.It accounts for about three-quarters of all chemical buffering ability of the body fluids
Respiratory excretion of carbon dioxide
Increasing CO2 and H+ concentrations stimulate chemoreceptors associated with the respiratory center; breathing rate and depth increase, and CO2 concentration decreases. If the CO2 and H+ concentrations are low, the respiratory center inhibits breathing.
Renal excretion of hydrogen ions
- The kidneys can neutralize more acid or base than either the respiratory system or the chemical buffers.
- Phosphates buffer H+ in urine
- Ammonia produced by renal cells helps transport hydrogen ions to the outside of the body.
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