The energy of motion, which is directly related to the speed of that motion. Moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter.
The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement
Energy is neither ___ nor ___ but ___from one form to another. This property is called the ________.
conservation of energy
When energy is converted from ___to ___, some of the energy can be used to ___, but some energy ends up as ___, a type of _____.
____he random motion of atoms and molecules
____ is a very disordered kind of energy. It has the highest amount of ____, or disorder, of any kind of energy.
A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness, symbolized by S.
The total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter; it is energy in its most random form.
Where do our muscles get energy to perform work?
Our bodies use the chemical energy from food to perform work.
Energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules; a form of potential energy
When your body breaks down food molecules, the stored _____from food can be converted to ____.
The stored _____ in food is released in your muscle cells during the process of _______.
Using oxygen, ____converts chemical energy from food to another form of chemical energy called ___. ___ + ___are by-products of cellular respiration.
Water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
The potential energy of ___ can be converted to kinetic energy. Some of the kinetic energy is used to do useful work, but the _____ that is generated cannot be used to do work.
An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
The capacity to do work (to move matter against an opposing force).
During cellular respiration, ___ releases energy. This energy is stored when a ___ is added to ___, forming ___.
ATP releases energy when the covalent bond between phosphate groups breaks during ___. This energy is used to drive other ___ reactions.
A starting material in a chemical reaction.
Cells contain many different molecules that can engage in a variety of chemical reactions. When molecules react, for example when they____ and ____ parts, their atoms and bonds are rearranged.
___ are rearranged to form ___.
Reactant and product molecules store ___ in the arrangements of their atoms and bonds. ____ involve changes in bonding and changes in energy.
Chemical reactions that release energy are called ___, or _____ reactions.
Other reactions, called ___, are ___changes; they absorb energy from their surroundings.
A spontaneous chemical reaction, in which there is a net release of free energy.
A non-spontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
In exergonic reactions, the potential energy of the molecules ____.
What can a cell do to make an endergonic reaction happen?
obtaining chemical energy from an exergonic reaction and then using the energy to drive an endergonic reaction.
____ is the key to energy coupling in the cell.
In an ____ reaction, ATP becomes ADP as a phosphate is removed; a reactant molecule acquires the phosphate from ATP and gains energy. Now the reaction can proceed.
True or False: For any reaction to occur, even a downhill reaction, some energy must be added to get the reaction going.
What is energy even in downhill reactions used for??
to break bonds in the reactant molecules
The energy needed to start a chemical reaction is called the ___. This required energy input represents a barrier that prevents even ______ from occurring without some added energy.
energy of activation (EA).
energy-releasing exergonic reactions
A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
How does a living cell overcome the energy barrier so that its metabolic reactions can occur quickly and precisely?
A special kind of protein called an enzyme
___ serves as a biological catalyst, increasing the rate of a reaction without being changed into a different molecule; it does not add energy to a reaction; instead, it speeds up a reaction by lowering the energy barrier.
The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds.
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
True or False: An enzyme is not selective.
False:An enzyme is very selective.
Its three-dimensional shape allows it to act only on specific molecules, called substrates
As the substrates bind to the enzyme's ____, they are held in a position that facilitates the reaction. This takes less ______ than the unaided reaction. ____ form and are released. The enzyme emerges unchanged from the reaction.
Because of the specific fit between enzyme and substrate, what can each enzyme do??
Each enzyme can catalyze only one kind of reaction involving specific substrates.