Micro Quiz

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Author:
aliceaustin
ID:
51011
Filename:
Micro Quiz
Updated:
2010-11-21 23:03:32
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Nervous System
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Nervous system
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  1. The nervous system is composed of:
    • CNS
    • -brain
    • -spinal cord

    PNS
  2. Meninges
    -composed of 3 membranes (dura, arachnoid, & pia mater) that cover/protect the brain & spinal cord

    -contain CSF

    -blood brain barrier--many substances in the blood cannot cross into the CSF
  3. Meningitis
    inflammation of the meninges
  4. Encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain
  5. Meningoencephalitis
    inflammation of the brain and meninges
  6. Diseases of the NERVOUS SYSTEM: 4 types
    Bacterial

    Viral

    Protozoan

    Prion
  7. 4 types of BACTERIAL DISEASES of the NERVOUS SYSTEM:
    Bacterial meningitis

    Tetanus

    Botulism

    Leprosy
  8. A bacterial disease of the nervous system - Bacterial Meningitis
    • Can be caused by:
    • *Haemophilus influenzae
    • *Neiserria meningitidis
    • *Streptococcus pneumoniae

    • -all are frequent normal colonizers of the nose/throat
    • -all have thick capsule preventing phagocytosis
    • -if enter bloodstream, replicate rapidly
    • -sometimes they cross BBB to cause meningitis
    • -initial symptoms: fever, headache, stiff neck
    • -can cause rapid death--shock/inflammation due to toxin release, can be w/in hours
  9. A bacterial disease of the nervous system - Tetanus
    • caused by:
    • Clostridium tetani
    • -commonly found in soil
    • -releases a neurotoxin
    • -toxin enters bloodstream and then CNS
    • -toxin causes muscle contractions - lockjaw, muscle spasm, back and heels can bow backward
    • -eventual death due respiratory muscle spasms
    • -preventable with tetanus vaccine--toxiod
  10. A bacterial disease of the nervous system - Botulism
    • caused by:
    • Clostridium botulinum
    • -found in soil
    • -makes exotoxin in anaerobic environments (ex: canned foods)
    • -exotoxin blocks nerve signals
    • -results in flaccid paralysis
    • -respiratory & cardiac failure
    • -spores often found in honey--problem for infants < 1 year due to not having normal flora protection
    • -toxin is now used therapeutically--botox
  11. A bacterial disease of the nervous system - Leprosy
    • caused by:
    • Mycobacterium leprae
    • -disfiguring nodules form on the body
    • -means of transfer unclear
    • -grows in nerve & skin cells
    • -tuberculoid (neural) leprosy, lepromatous (progressive) leprosy
  12. 2 types of VIRAL DISEASES of the NERVOUS SYSTEM:
    Poliomyelitis

    Rabies
  13. A viral disease of the nervous system - Poliomyelitis
    • caused by:
    • poliovirus
    • -infects throat & small intestine, but can get into the CNS
    • -causes paralysis
  14. A viral disease of the nervous system - Rabies
    • caused by:
    • rabies virus
    • -results in fatal encephalitis
    • -virus found in animals (dogs, bats)
    • -virus prolliferatres in PNS then to CNS
  15. 1 type of PROTOZOAN DISEASE of the NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • African Trypanosomiasis
    • caused by:
    • Trypanosoma brucei
    • -aka: African sleeping sickness
    • -carried person to person by a vector--Tsetse fly
    • -protozoan flagellate invades the CNS resulting in deterioration of the nerves
    • -coma & death inevitable w/out treatment
    • -drugs not very effective
    • -elimination of the vector is primary approach
  16. PRION DISEASES of the NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • -are abnormally folded proteins
    • -found in brain tissue
    • -cause normally folded proteins to fold abnormally
    • -leads to aggregates & spongiform tissue

    • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
    • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) - mad cow

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