pharm calc

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Author:
marinir
ID:
51034
Filename:
pharm calc
Updated:
2010-11-21 23:10:19
Tags:
calc
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Description:
isotonic solutions
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  1. osmosis
    • solvent passes through a semi-permeable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated one
    • concentrations become equalized
  2. non electrolyte
    • undissociated
    • solution contains only molecules
    • osmotic pressure varies with the concentration of the solute
  3. non electrolyte
    total number of particles=osmotic pressure
  4. electrolyte
    • dissociated
    • solution contains ions
  5. electrolyte
    osmotic pressure varies with both the concentration of the solute and its degree of dissociation
  6. isosmotic
    2 solutions that have the same osmotic pressure
  7. isotonic
    • solution having the same osmotic pressure as a specific body fluid
    • (equal tone)
    • not being isotonic is painful for the patient (stinging or burns)
  8. Hypotonic
    solutions of lower osmotic pressure than that of the body fluid
  9. hypertonic
    solutions of higher osmotic pressure than that of a body fluid
  10. pharmaceutical dosage forms
    • opthalmic (eye)
    • nasal (nose)
    • parenteral (injection)
    • enema (rectal)
  11. Special clinical considerations of tonicity
    • isotonic solutions are better tolerated by the patient
    • homeostasis with the bodys intracellular fluids
  12. physical/chemical considerations in the preparation of isotonic solutions
    • comarison of freezing points are used for determining tonicity
    • preezing point of both blood serum and lacrimal fluid are the same -.52 degrees C
    • lacrimal=eye fluid
    • (standard to compare to)
  13. non electrolyte
    • one gram molecular weight of any non electrolyte
    • dissolve in 1000g of H2O (1000mL)
    • freezing point of the solution is about -1.86 degrees C below the freezing point of pure water
  14. non electrolyte
    can calculate the weight of any non electrolyte that should be dissolved in each 1000 g of water if the solution is to be isotonic with body fluids
  15. electrolytes
    • osmotic pressure depends more on the number than on kind of particles
    • substances have a tonic effect that increases with the degree of dissociation
  16. electrolytes
    greater the dissociation, the smaller the quantity required to produce any given osmotic pressure
  17. dissociation factor (i)
    • molecules divided by molecules start with before dissociation
    • the multiplier to use with isotonic equation
  18. i for non electrolytes
    1
  19. i for substances that dissociate into 2 ions
    1.8
  20. i for substances that dissociate into 3 ions
    2.6
  21. i value for substances that dissociate into 4 ions
    3.4
  22. i value for substances that dissolve into 5 ions
    4.2
  23. Calculating isotinic solutions (step 1)
    calculate the amount (in grams) of NaCl represented by the ingredients in the prescription. Multiply the amount (in grams) of each substance by its NaCl equivalent
  24. Calculating isotonic solutions (step 2)
    calculate the amount (in grams) of NaCl alone that would be contained in an isotonic solution of the volume specified in the prescription
  25. Calculating isotonic solutions (step 3)
    subtract the amount of NaCl represented by the ingredients in the prescription fom step 1 from the amount of NaCl alone that would be represented in the specific volume of an isotonic solution from step 2. THe answer is in grams
  26. Calcualting isotonic solutions (step 4)
    If an agent other than NaCa such as boric acid, dextrose or potassium nitrate is to be used to make a solution isotonic, divide the amoint og NaCl in step 3 by the NaCl equivalent of the other substance

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