pharm calc

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Author:
marinir
ID:
51036
Filename:
pharm calc
Updated:
2010-11-21 23:26:31
Tags:
calc
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Description:
electrolyte solutions
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  1. non electrolytes
    • remain in tact (do not dissociate)
    • urea, dextrose
  2. electrolytes
    • dissociate into particles (ions)
    • carry electric charge
    • NaCl
  3. Na+
    • cathode negative side of electrode
    • cation positive charge ion
    • opposites attract
  4. Cl-
    • anode positive side of electrode
    • anion negative charge ion
  5. Cations in plasma
    • Na+
    • K+
    • Ca++
    • Mg++
  6. Anions is blood plasma
    • Cl-
    • HCO3-
    • HPO4-2
    • SO4-2
    • organic acids -2
    • protein -
  7. electrolytes in body fluids
    • maintain the acid-base balance in the body
    • control body water volumes
    • regulate body metabolism
  8. Applicable dosage forms of electrolyte preparations
    used in the tretment of disturbances of the electrolyte and fluid balance in the body
  9. Dosage forms
    • oral solutions and syrups
    • dyr granules intended to be dissolved in water or juice to make an oral solution
    • oral tablets and capsules
    • intravenous infusion
  10. milliequivalents
    • chemical unit
    • express the concentration of electrolytes in solution
    • related to the total number of ionic charges in solution (takes note of the valence of the ions)
    • measurement of the amount of chemical activity of an electrolyte
  11. Cation milliequivalents in the blood
    in mEq/L
    • Na+ 142
    • K+ 5
    • Ca++ 5
    • Mg++ 2

    total=154 cations
  12. Anion milliequivalents in the blood in mEq/L
    • HCO3- 24
    • Cl- 105
    • HPO4-2 2
    • SO4-2 1
    • organic acids- 6
    • proteins- 16


    total=154 anions
  13. mEq cation=mEq anion=mEq of the chemical compound
  14. solutions contain the same number of ions but not the same weight of each ion
  15. Eq=mw(g) divided by valence
  16. mEq=mw(mg) divided by valence
  17. mEq=mg x 1mEq divided by (mw in mg divided by valence)
  18. mg=mEq x mw(mg) divided by valence all divided by 1 mEq
  19. mole
    molecular weight of a substance in grams
  20. millimole
    • one thousandth of a mole
    • drug amount in solution
  21. osmotic pressure
    • important to biologic processes that involve the diffusion of soluted or the transfer of fluids through semi-permeable membranes
    • proportional to the total number of particles in solution
    • measured in millimoles (mOsmol)
  22. non electrolytes
    • do not dissociate
    • 1mmol (mw in mg)=1 mOsmol
  23. electrolytes
    • total number of particles in solution depends on the degree of dissociation of the substance
    • mOsmol=species produced
  24. mOsmol/L=mg/L x 1mmol/mw(mg) x # of species (mOsmol)/mmol

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