Resp. lecture 2 (Upper resp disorders)

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Resp. lecture 2 (Upper resp disorders)
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2010-01-25 17:09:31
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  1. Viral infections-URI/common cold

    Manifestations
    Treatment
    Complications
    • Most common resp tract infection
    • Highly contagious even more symptoms occur
    • Caused by one of the more that 200 strains of viruses
    • Spread by droplet contamination during cauging, sneezing, or direct contact

    Red nasal membranes, Rhinnorrhea, sore throat, low grade fever, malaise, HA, musc ache

    Can treat with OTC. Need bedrest. Hydrate well. Have HTN? if they do make sure they take the right meds

    may end up with virus and pneumonia--antibiotic won't work--may get secondary complication such as otitis media of sinusitis.
  2. Influenza
    • A highly contagious disease characterized by corysa (cold like symptoms), fever, cough, HA, malaise.
    • Usually occurs as epidemic.
  3. Sinusitis
    • An inflammation of the mucous membranes of one or more of the sinuses. develops when nasal membranes swell and sinuses are blocked.
    • May be complication of URI or influenza.
  4. Pharyngitis or Tonsillitis
    Viral or bacterial inflammation of infection, commonly group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus

    • pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)- upper pharynx
    • palantine tonsils- on either side of the soft palate in the throat
  5. Rhinitis
    Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose, usually accompanied by a severe discharge of secretions
  6. Laryngeal inflammations and Infections
    Laryncotracheobronchitis
    • (Croup)
    • Inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and major bronchi
  7. Laryngeal inflammations and Infections
    Epiglottitis
    Usually caused by H. flu, a rapidly progressive cellulitis which threatens the airway by causing edema of the epiglottis; may prevent movement or air in and out of the lungs
  8. Laryngitis
    Inflammation of the mucous membranes lining the larynx , causes edema of the vocal cords, horseness and aphonia (without speech)
  9. Laryngeal inflammations and Infections
    Diptheria
    A contagious desease cause by Cornebacterium diptheriae, spread by droplet infection; rare due to routine immunizations in childhood; thick, grey membrane forms and affects tonsils and pharynx.
  10. Laryngeal inflammations and Infections
    Pertussis
    • (Whooping cough)
    • Highly contagious, caused by Bordetella pertusis; has been rare due to routine childhood immunizations, but is reappearing; toxins from the bacteria interfere with the ability of the pt to clear resp secretions
  11. Epistaxis
    • (nose bleed)
    • precipitated by trauma, dry nasal membranes, infection, substance abuse, hypertension, bleeding disorder, anticoagulants; unually affects anterior nasal septum
  12. Nasal Trauma or Surgery
    Most common is a broken bone, bilateral fracture is most common where both nasal bones are disphaced to one side; will also usually experience black eyes, swelling, and bony crepitus
  13. Obstructive Lesions
    Choanal Atresia
    A congenital obstruction of the posterior nares by an obstructing membrane of bony growth
  14. Obstructive Lesions
    Deviated Septum
    A bending or shifting of the nasal septum causing a blockage, usually a result of injury or infection; requires surgery to correct
  15. Obstructive Lesions
    Nasal polyps
    Benign "grape-like" growths of the mucous membrane; interferes with air movement and often obstruct sinus openings
  16. Obstructive Lesions
    Foreign Bodies
    More common in children--remove only if sure you can get it
  17. Laryngeal Obstruction
    Since the larynx is the narrowest portion of the upper airway, any obstruction may be life-treatening
  18. Laryngeal Trauma
    May be result of MVA, assults, difficult intubation, soft tissue trauma, fracture of the thyroid or cricoid cartilage
  19. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    An interrmittent absence of airflow through the mouth and nose during sleep
  20. Central Sleep Apnea
    A pathological disorder causes an impairment in the neurological drive to the resp muscles
  21. Laryngeal Tumor
    • Benign--
    • Malignant--

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