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Rights to be given something by somebody
- eg. Right to a public school education
- grade K-12
- Public Protection
- Fire Protection
- Rights of non-interference
- don't interfere with me, don't bother me, don't try to stop me
- eg. Bill of Rights- Rights or free speech, Freedom of Assembly, Freedom of Realign
- Situation 1 (round 1)
- on our island we have the right to produce more agricultural goods.
- We want to create an irrigation system
- Changed 100% vote to 80% vote to pass
- Sniffle weed plant produces a bad allergic reaction/severe allergic reaction
- Bad- life comes to stand still on our Island everyone is too sick
- Its bad hurting our children, hurting everyone, too sick to do anything
- Good- scientists have developed a vaccine that prevents the horrible allergic reaction
- But- to get the serum we need to isolate two people permanently on the Island...
Round 2 cont'
- will be put in a Isolated glass room, they will be treated as heros, they get anything they want
- It's random they can have any contact with each other on their own terms, but can not mate
- They stay only, 2 people that's it, then everything will be fine, we will no longer need to do this.
- So once these two lived their lives and died in Isolation- everything will be fine
- Round 2 passed we changed look at cards to don't look at cards
- we have terrible mosquito problem on our island, problem with Malaria.
- Malaria can be fatal especially to babies, children and old people.
- We need to clear the swamp, we need to work on this problem by solving it ourselves, we all have to pitch in.
- Problem- likely that 2 of us will die because of the clearing of the swamp
- Do we clear the Swamp?
- Voted YES
Played the Rawl's Game
- game is manipulated/not a fair game
- Round 1- egoism- motivated by your self-interest
- Round 2- ultilitarian view- normal life, no more sniffle weed, what will make most of us happy, tiny percentage 2 people are Isolated
- Round 3- not looking at cards is Rawls game- improvement at your expense
- Driving- construction- local people jamming to the front like they don't have to wait like everyone else
- John Rawls says this is human nature
- We are all prejudice and irrational not logical not using reason focusing more on the prejudice
- (create a system that distributes burden and benefits)
- John Rawls = Fair
- he's concerned with asking ourselves as a society how are we going to divide the burdens and benefits?
- He wants to do this by what is fair to all and compassionate for all
- 1. all motivated by self- interest, I want my improvement happens at your losing
Distribute the social benefits and social burdens in a way that is fair to all and is guided by compassion
John Rawl's View of Human Nature
- Humans seek their own self interest
- Humans will work to improve their own situation at the expense of others
- Humans are prejudiced and not always rational
- Group of adults charged with picking the principles for a new society
- (like politicians)
Veil of Ignorance
- to achieve fairness for all people
- behind the veil
- no one knows anything about their specific circumstances in society
2 Principles of Justice (Difference Principle)
- (behind the veil of ignorance)
- chosen by the group in the original position
- 1. each person has an equal right to the most extensive liberty compatible with like liberty for all
- enormous amounts of freedoms and rights we don't know who or what we are
- Fairness can happen with self interest
- Example- Individuals who want to be in the symphony or orchestra - play in the philharmonic CCM students decided to change orchestra rules, orchestra says nothing will change they were wrong things did change. now all you hear is how well i can or cant play not what i look like or my race etc...
- ex) maximum liberties/ where liberties stop is where any liberties would be taken away from anybody else
The Difference Principle
- 2. any inequality must be shown to be to the advantage of the least advantaged group/ or person
- ex) people who are blind get a full benefit that people who are not blind do not get
- Welfare, food stamps
Four Branches of Government
1. Allocation Branch
- prevents monopolies
- keeps prices fair
- materials/labor and reasonable profit=price
Four Branches of Government
2. Stabilization Branch
- maintain reasonably full employment
- match job openings with workers
- (were all going to work together/ talk)
Four Branches of Government
3. Transfer Branch
- Establish social minimum
- what is the least amount needed for survival of a person in the society
- housing, food, healthcare, etc..
- (wants people to be able to survive/what's guaranteed to you)
- (temporary survival not so great)
Four Branches of Government
4. Distribution Branch
- just distribution of income
- taxation to pay for social minimum
- taxation to pay for general needs of the society- roads, defense etc...
- (spend the money now- good for economy)
Martin Luther King Jr- Four Criteria for Identifying an unjust law
- 1. just laws uplift people. unjust laws degrade people
- 2. just laws have consent of the governed. unjust laws do not
- 3. just laws are in harmony with God's laws. unjust laws are not
- 4. just laws apply to all equally. unjust laws do not
- *all four have to be met!
4 rules for Civil Disobedience
- 1. Law is unjust
- 2. Break law in public
- 3. Break the law without violence
- 4. Take the punishment
Virtue Ethics- Character
- until now all theories have asked what should I do?
- Virtue theory asks- How should I be?
- -develop our character
- -virtuous person
- We must shape our own character- though the choices we make
- we must use critical thinking
- we must become educated
- then we must act it will not require "rules"
- -our action will follow naturally form our character
- Aristophanes- famous comic playwright
- Plato- follower and later great philosopher himself
- (influenced in a major way by socrates)
Oracle at Delphi
-position of higher honor
- says to Socrates:
- wisest man claim
- socrates' response
- (I'll bring someone back who's wiser than me, wiser then himself)
- His mission
- (find a person who's wiser than himself, he's convinced that he can find someone)
- Mission- "the search for someone wiser"
- finds-the shoe maker, thinks he is wiser than himself, but finds the shoe makers flaws
- shoe maker questions the people of higher power the government, the laws, trade etc...
- experts who go to far
- experts who don't go far enough
- debates at the town square
- socrates charged with two crimes
- So socrates starts interviewing people at the market place, people learn the flaws of others, find it amusing (many gather to hear him)
- Socrates asks minister of culture to define beauty, minister gives him a list of beautiful things instead
- So socrates asks the minister again, But still not right, socrates tells the minister of culture the definition of beauty, the minister listens and says maybe your right, he starts to think about what socrates says , this goes back and fourth and the minister gives up
- he cant define beauty, socrates says but if this is job, you can't do your job? why do you have it then?
- People would come and watch what socrates had to say, a group of young men in this group was Plato.
- Plato goes home and talks to his parents about the minister and socrates, parents are angry that the boys are spending their time laughing at people of higher authority or money, power
- as a result socrates is charged with two crimes!
- 1. corrupting the youth of Athens (corrupting their minds)
- 2. being an Atheist
Trial Phase 1
- Address the charges
- Denies he intended to corrupt the youth
- Denies he is an Atheist
- Suggests this has gotten out of hand
- He is still however found gulity
Trial Phase 2- Apology
- suggest your own punishment
- (this is a chance where you come up with the most harsh punishment thus accepting your charges and the jury come up with a lesser charge accepting your apology)
- Customary behavior
- Socrates' behavior
- Socrates says: I deserve a government pension and I should eat lunch for free with all the government officials, b/c i provided a public service, asking questions, getting answers, exposing people, I did this all for free.
- Jury does not like this and are very angry
Trial Phase 3
- sentencing option
- 1. exile- you and your family pack and leave Athens, never come back
- 2. Death
- Socrates choice is Death
- After his sentencing he talks about the unexamined life
The Unexamined Life
- The unexamined life is not worth living if I can't ask questions, seek the truth, then I rather be dead
- (can't have a life of learning, then I rather die)
- Socrates is 70 years old during his trial.
- Socrates says your going to look bad, you are going to kill an old man
- (there is no apology) you'll look bad, I'm not afraid to die, KlLL ME
- Socrates goes to jail, waits to be killed
The Crito Reasons to Escape
- -Socrates friends try to break him free they go see socrates, crito went to socrates with a plan
- bribed the guards, and a boat is ready for your escape
- Crito's Arguments to socrates:
- Throwing your life away
- Letting down your family/friends - Disgrace
- Taking the easy way out
- All this did not convince socrates however
Better to live Well
- more important to live well than just live
- Important to live a way that's honorable
- 2 wrongs don't make a right
- Contract with state
- Social chaos
- -talks to Crito about his contract with the state, I had a trial just like everyone else, I was treated fairly, I will live by the rules
- He could have chosen exile- Socrates says if I didn't chose that why would i run away
- Running now = Disgrace
- Day of execution: family/friends around him/ execution method drinking poison and die, picking up the glass and drinking it from the table (thus resulting in your death)
- -if the guard had to kill you that would leave a religious stain on the guard