don't interfere with me, don't bother me, don't try to stop me
eg. Bill of Rights- Rights or free speech, Freedom of Assembly, Freedom of Realign
Situation 1 (round 1)
on our island we have the right to produce more agricultural goods.
We want to create an irrigation system
Changed 100% vote to 80% vote to pass
Sniffle weed plant produces a bad allergic reaction/severe allergic reaction
Bad- life comes to stand still on our Island everyone is too sick
Its bad hurting our children, hurting everyone, too sick to do anything
Good- scientists have developed a vaccine that prevents the horrible allergic reaction
But- to get the serum we need to isolate two people permanently on the Island...
Round 2 cont'
will be put in a Isolated glass room, they will be treated as heros, they get anything they want
It's random they can have any contact with each other on their own terms, but can not mate
They stay only, 2 people that's it, then everything will be fine, we will no longer need to do this.
So once these two lived their lives and died in Isolation- everything will be fine
Round 2 passed we changed look at cards to don't look at cards
we have terrible mosquito problem on our island, problem with Malaria.
Malaria can be fatal especially to babies, children and old people.
We need to clear the swamp, we need to work on this problem by solving it ourselves, we all have to pitch in.
Problem- likely that 2 of us will die because of the clearing of the swamp
Do we clear the Swamp?
Played the Rawl's Game
game is manipulated/not a fair game
Round 1- egoism- motivated by your self-interest
Round 2- ultilitarian view- normal life, no more sniffle weed, what will make most of us happy, tiny percentage 2 people are Isolated
Round 3- not looking at cards is Rawls game- improvement at your expense
Driving- construction- local people jamming to the front like they don't have to wait like everyone else
John Rawls says this is human nature
We are all prejudice and irrational not logical not using reason focusing more on the prejudice
(create a system that distributes burden and benefits)
John Rawls = Fair
he's concerned with asking ourselves as a society how are we going to divide the burdens and benefits?
He wants to do this by what is fair to all and compassionate for all
1. all motivated by self- interest, I want my improvement happens at your losing
Distribute the social benefits and social burdens in a way that is fair to all and is guided by compassion
John Rawl's View of Human Nature
Humans seek their own self interest
Humans will work to improve their own situation at the expense of others
Humans are prejudiced and not always rational
Group of adults charged with picking the principles for a new society
Veil of Ignorance
to achieve fairness for all people
behind the veil
no one knows anything about their specific circumstances in society
2 Principles of Justice (Difference Principle)
(behind the veil of ignorance)
chosen by the group in the original position
1. each person has an equal right to the most extensive liberty compatible with like liberty for all
enormous amounts of freedoms and rights we don't know who or what we are
Fairness can happen with self interest
Example- Individuals who want to be in the symphony or orchestra - play in the philharmonic CCM students decided to change orchestra rules, orchestra says nothing will change they were wrong things did change. now all you hear is how well i can or cant play not what i look like or my race etc...
ex) maximum liberties/ where liberties stop is where any liberties would be taken away from anybody else
The Difference Principle
2. any inequality must be shown to be to the advantage of the least advantaged group/ or person
ex) people who are blind get a full benefit that people who are not blind do not get
Welfare, food stamps
Four Branches of Government
1. Allocation Branch
keeps prices fair
materials/labor and reasonable profit=price
Four Branches of Government
2. Stabilization Branch
maintain reasonably full employment
match job openings with workers
(were all going to work together/ talk)
Four Branches of Government
3. Transfer Branch
Establish social minimum
what is the least amount needed for survival of a person in the society
housing, food, healthcare, etc..
(wants people to be able to survive/what's guaranteed to you)
(temporary survival not so great)
Four Branches of Government
4. Distribution Branch
just distribution of income
taxation to pay for social minimum
taxation to pay for general needs of the society- roads, defense etc...
(spend the money now- good for economy)
Martin Luther King Jr- Four Criteria for Identifying an unjust law
1. just laws uplift people. unjust laws degrade people
2. just laws have consent of the governed. unjust laws do not
3. just laws are in harmony with God's laws. unjust laws are not
4. just laws apply to all equally. unjust laws do not
*all four have to be met!
4 rules for Civil Disobedience
1. Law is unjust
2. Break law in public
3. Break the law without violence
4. Take the punishment
Virtue Ethics- Character
until now all theories have asked what should I do?
Virtue theory asks- How should I be?
-develop our character
We must shape our own character- though the choices we make
we must use critical thinking
we must become educated
then we must act it will not require "rules"
-our action will follow naturally form our character
Aristophanes- famous comic playwright
Plato- follower and later great philosopher himself
(influenced in a major way by socrates)
Oracle at Delphi
-position of higher honor
says to Socrates:
wisest man claim
(I'll bring someone back who's wiser than me, wiser then himself)
(find a person who's wiser than himself, he's convinced that he can find someone)
Mission- "the search for someone wiser"
finds-the shoe maker, thinks he is wiser than himself, but finds the shoe makers flaws
shoe maker questions the people of higher power the government, the laws, trade etc...
experts who go to far
experts who don't go far enough
debates at the town square
socrates charged with two crimes
So socrates starts interviewing people at the market place, people learn the flaws of others, find it amusing (many gather to hear him)
Socrates asks minister of culture to define beauty, minister gives him a list of beautiful things instead
So socrates asks the minister again, But still not right, socrates tells the minister of culture the definition of beauty, the minister listens and says maybe your right, he starts to think about what socrates says , this goes back and fourth and the minister gives up
he cant define beauty, socrates says but if this is job, you can't do your job? why do you have it then?
People would come and watch what socrates had to say, a group of young men in this group was Plato.
Plato goes home and talks to his parents about the minister and socrates, parents are angry that the boys are spending their time laughing at people of higher authority or money, power
as a result socrates is charged with two crimes!
1. corrupting the youth of Athens (corrupting their minds)
2. being an Atheist
Trial Phase 1
Address the charges
Denies he intended to corrupt the youth
Denies he is an Atheist
Suggests this has gotten out of hand
He is still however found gulity
Trial Phase 2- Apology
suggest your own punishment
(this is a chance where you come up with the most harsh punishment thus accepting your charges and the jury come up with a lesser charge accepting your apology)
Socrates says: I deserve a government pension and I should eat lunch for free with all the government officials, b/c i provided a public service, asking questions, getting answers, exposing people, I did this all for free.
Jury does not like this and are very angry
Trial Phase 3
1. exile- you and your family pack and leave Athens, never come back
Socrates choice is Death
After his sentencing he talks about the unexamined life
The Unexamined Life
The unexamined life is not worth living if I can't ask questions, seek the truth, then I rather be dead
(can't have a life of learning, then I rather die)
Socrates is 70 years old during his trial.
Socrates says your going to look bad, you are going to kill an old man
(there is no apology) you'll look bad, I'm not afraid to die, KlLL ME
Socrates goes to jail, waits to be killed
The Crito Reasons to Escape
-Socrates friends try to break him free they go see socrates, crito went to socrates with a plan
bribed the guards, and a boat is ready for your escape
Crito's Arguments to socrates:
Throwing your life away
Letting down your family/friends - Disgrace
Taking the easy way out
All this did not convince socrates however
Better to live Well
more important to live well than just live
Important to live a way that's honorable
2 wrongs don't make a right
Contract with state
-talks to Crito about his contract with the state, I had a trial just like everyone else, I was treated fairly, I will live by the rules
He could have chosen exile- Socrates says if I didn't chose that why would i run away
Running now = Disgrace
Day of execution: family/friends around him/ execution method drinking poison and die, picking up the glass and drinking it from the table (thus resulting in your death)
-if the guard had to kill you that would leave a religious stain on the guard