Goniometry

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Author:
nakomarose
ID:
51091
Filename:
Goniometry
Updated:
2010-11-22 08:56:45
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Goniometry
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Goniometry
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  1. Shoulder Flexion
    • Sagittal plane around coronal axis
    • POSITION- supine, arm by side on table
    • AXIS- head of humerus in glenoid fossa
    • PROXIMAL ARM- mid-axillary line to hip, greater trochanter
    • DISTAL ARM- mid-line of humerus, lateral epicondyle as a reference
  2. Shoulder Extension
    • Sagittal plane around coronal axis
    • POSITION- prone, arm on table, palm up, elbow straight
    • AXIS- head of humerus in glenoid fossa
    • PROXIMAL ARM- mid-axillary line to hip, greater trochanter
    • DISTAL ARM- mid-line of humerus, lateral epicondyle as a reference
  3. Shoulder ABduction
    • Frontal plane around A-P axis
    • POSITION- supine, forearm supinated, Palm toward ceiling
    • AXIS- acromion process, A to P
    • PROXIMAL ARM- parallel to sternum, lateral thorax area
    • DISTAL ARM- midline of the humerus, medial epicondyle as a reference
  4. Shoulder ADduction
    • RED SCALE
    • Frontal plane around A-P axis
    • POSITION- supine, shoulder flexed to 90º, palm to opposite shoulder
    • AXIS- acromion process, S to I
    • PROXIMAL ARM- parallel to table pointing away from head, acromion as reference
    • DISTAL ARM- anterior mid-humeral line
  5. Shoulder Internal Rotation
    • Transverse plane around longitudinal axis
    • POSITION- supine, shoulders abducted 90º, elbow flexed 90º, palm toward feet
    • AXIS- olecranon process, sight a line through the shaft of the humerus
    • PROXIMAL ARM- perpendicular to the table toward floor
    • DISTAL ARM- midline of forearm to ulnar styloid
  6. Shoulder External Rotation
    • Transverse plane around the longitudinal axis
    • POSITION- supine, shoulder abducted 90º, elbow flexed 90º, palm toward feet
    • AXIS- Olecranon process sight a line through humerus
    • PROXIMAL ARM- Perpendicular to the table toward floor
    • DISTAL ARM- midline of forearm to ulnar styloid
  7. Elbow Flexion
    • Sagittal plane around the coronal axis
    • POSITION- supine, forearm supinated.
    • AXIS- lateral epicondyle
    • PROXIMAL ARM- mid-line lateral humerus, humeral head as reference
    • DISTAL ARM- mid-line lateral forearm, radial styloid as reference
  8. Elbow Extension
    • Sagittal plane around coronal axis
    • POSITION- supine, forearm supinated (raise humerus off table to visualize)
    • AXIS- lateral epicondyle
    • PROXIMAL ARM- mid-line lateral humerus, humeral head as reference
    • DISTAL ARM- mid-line lateral forearm, radial styloid as reference
  9. Wrist Flexion
    • Sagittal plane around coronal axis
    • POSITION- supine, elbow flexed 90º, palm toward feet
    • AXIS- medial wrist through pisiform
    • PROXIMAL ARM- medial mid-line of forearm, olecranon process as reference
    • DISTAL ARM- medial hand, fifth MCP joint as reference
  10. Wrist Extension
    • Sagittal plane around coronal axis
    • POSITION- supine, elbow flexed 90º, palm towards feet
    • AXIS- medial wrist through pisiform
    • PROXIMAL ARM- medial mid-line of forearm using olecranon process as reference
    • DISTAL ARM- medial hand, fifth MCP joint as reference
  11. Wrist Radial Deviation
    • Frontal plane around A-P axis
    • POSITION- supine, elbow flexed to 90º, palm to mid-line of body
    • AXIS- mid-line of wrist near capitate
    • PROXIMAL ARM- mid-line of posterior forearm
    • DISTAL ARM- mid-line of dorsum hand, third MCP joint as reference
  12. Wrist Ulnar
    • Frontal plane around the A-P axis
    • POSITION- supine, elbow flexed 90º, palm to mid-line of body
    • AXIS- mid-line of wrist near capitate
    • PROXIMAL ARM- mid-line of posterior forearm
    • DISTAL ARM- mid-line dorsum hand, third MCP joint as reference
  13. Hip Flexion
    • Sagittal plane around a coronal axis
    • POSITION – supine, knee starts in extension but is flexed as hip flexes – looks like Thomas Orthopedic Test
    • AXIS – lateral hip joint, greater trochanter as reference
    • PROXIMAL ARM – parallel to lateral mid-line of body toward axilla
    • DISTAL ARM – parallel to lateral mid-line of femur, lateral condyle as reference
  14. Hip Extension
    • Sagittal plane around a coronal axis
    • POSITION – prone, knee extended
    • AXIS – lateral hip joint, greater trochanter as reference
    • PROXIMAL ARM – parallel to lateral mid-line of body toward axilla
    • DISTAL ARM – parallel to lateral mid-line of femur, lateral condyle as reference
  15. Hip ABduction
    • RED SCALE
    • Frontal plane around A-P axis
    • POSITION - supine
    • AXIS – over ASIS on side being tested
    • PROXIMAL ARM – aligned from ASIS to ASIS (patient holds instrument)
    • DISTAL ARM – anterior mid-line of femur, patella as reference
  16. Hip ADduction
    • RED SCALE
    • Frontal plane around A-P axis
    • POSITION – supine, opposite leg over side of table doctor stands there for stability
    • AXIS – over ASIS on side being tested
    • PROXIMAL ARM – aligned from ASIS to ASIS (patient holds instrument)
    • DISTAL ARM – anterior mid-line of femur, patella as reference
  17. Hip External Rotation
    • Transverse plane around longitudinal axis
    • POSITION – supine with hip and knee flexed 90º
    • AXIS- center of anterior patella
    • PROXIMAL ARM – parallel to side of table and floor toward head of table
    • DISTAL ARM – mid-line anterior leg, tibial crest as reference
  18. Hip Internal Rotation
    • Transverse plane around longitudinal axis
    • POSITION – supine with hip and knee flexed 90º
    • AXIS – center of anterior patella
    • PROXIMAL ARM – parallel to the side of table and floor toward head of table
    • DISTAL ARM – mid-line of anterior leg, tibial crest, as reference
  19. Knee Flexion
    • Sagittal plane around coronal axis
    • POSITION – prone, knee extended
    • AXIS – lateral condyle of femur
    • PROXIMAL ARM – lateral mid-line of femur, greater trochanter as reference
    • DISTAL ARM – lateral mid-line of leg, lateral malleolus as reference
  20. Knee Extension
    • Sagittal plane around the coronal axis
    • POSITION – supine, knee extended
    • AXIS – lateral condyle of femur
    • PROXIMAL ARM – lateral mid-line of femur, greater trochanter as reference
    • DISTAL ARM – lateral mid-line of leg, lateral malleolus as reference
  21. Ankle Plantar Flexion
    • RED SCALE
    • Sagittal plane around coronal axis
    • POSITION – prone, knee at 90º, start with foot at 90º (neutral position)
    • AXIS – lateral malleolus
    • PROXIMAL ARM – lateral mid-line of the leg, fibular head as reference
    • DISTAL ARM – parallel to lateral aspect of fifth metatarsal
  22. Ankle Dorsiflexion
    • RED SCALE
    • Sagittal plane around coronal axis
    • POSITION – prone, knee at 90º, start with foot at 90º (neutral position)
    • AXIS –lateral malleolus
    • PROXIMAL ARM – lateral mid-line of leg, fibula head as a reference
    • DISTAL ARM – parallel to lateral aspect of fifth metatarsal
  23. Subtalar Inversion
    • Frontal plane around A-P axis
    • POSITION – prone, knee extended, feet off table
    • AXIS – between lateral and medial malleolus at mid-calcaneal bone
    • PROXIMAL ARM – mid-line of tibia, gastrocnemius
    • DISTAL ARM – mid-line of calcaneal bone
  24. Subtalar Eversion
    • Frontal plane around A-P axis
    • POSITION – prone, knee extended, feet off table
    • AXIS – between lateral and medial malleolus at mid-calcaneal bone
    • PROXIMAL ARM – mid-line of tibia, gastrocnemius
    • DISTAL ARM – mid-line of calcaneal bone

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