Chap 15 terminology.txt

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teloff
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Chap 15 terminology.txt
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2010-11-22 11:58:36
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Chap 15 terminology
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  1. achromatopsia
    severe congenital deficiency in color perception; also called complete color blindness
  2. chalazion
    small, hard tumor developing on the eyelid, somewhat similar to a sebaceous cyst
  3. conjunctivitis
    inflammation of the conjunctiva with vascular congestion, producing a red or pink eye; may be secondary to viral, bacterial or fungal infections or allergy
  4. convergence
    medial movement of the two eyeballs so that they are both directed at the object being viewed
  5. Diopter (D)
    • measurement of a refractive error
    • if D value is negative, it signifies an eye with myopia; when the D value is positive, it signifies an eye with hyperopia
  6. ectropion
    eversion or outward turning of the edge of the lower eyelid
  7. emmetropia (Em)
    • state of normal vision
    • in emmetropia, when the eye is at rest, the image is focused directly on the retina
  8. entropion
    inversion or inward turning of the edge of the lower eyelid
  9. epiphora
    • abnormal overflow of tears
    • sometimes caused by blocked tear ducts
  10. exophthalmos
    • protrusion of one or both eyeballs
    • common causes include hyperactive thyroid, trauma and tumor
  11. hordeolum
    localized, circumscribed, inflammatory swelling of one of the several sebaceous glands of the eyelid, generally caused by a bacterial infection; also called stye
  12. metamorphopsia
    • visual distortion of objects
    • commonly associated with errors of refraction, retinal disease, choroiditis, detachment of the retina and tumors of the retina or choroid
  13. nyctalopia
    • impaired vision in dim light; also called night blindness
    • common causes include cataracts, vitamin A deficiency, certain medications and hereditary causes
  14. nystagmus
    involuntary eye movements that appear jerky and may reduce vision or be associated with other, more serious conditions that limit vision
  15. papilledema
    edema and hyperemia of the optic disc usually associated with increased intercranial pressure; also called choked disc
  16. photophobia
    • unusual intolerance and sensitivity to light
    • commonly occurs in such diseases as meningitis, inflammation of the eyes, measles and rubella
  17. presbyopia
    loss of accommodation of the crystalline lens associated with the aging process
  18. retinopathy
    any disorder of retinal blood vessels
  19. diabetic retinopathy
    disorder that occcurs in patients with diabetes and is manifested by small hemorrhages, edema, and formation of new vessels on the retina, leading to scarring and eventual loss of vision
  20. trachoma
    chronic, contagious form of conjunctivitis common in the southwestern United States that typically leads to blindness
  21. visual field
    area within which objects may be seen when the eye is in a fixed position
  22. anacusis
    • complete deafness; also called anacusia
    • may be unilateral or bilateral. Should not be confused with hearing loss. Hearing loss refers to impairment in hearing and the individual may be able to respond to auditory stimuli including speech
  23. conduction impairment
    blocking of sound waves as they pass through the external and middle ear (conduction pathway)
  24. labyrinthitis
    • inflammation of the inner ear that usually results from an acute febrile process
    • may lead to progressive vertigo
  25. Meniere disease
    • disorder of the labyrinth that leads to progressive loss of hearing
    • characterized by vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus
  26. noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL)
    condition caused by the destruction of the hair cells, the organs responsible for hearing, caused by sounds that are "too long, too loud or too close"
  27. otitis externa
    • infection of the external auditory canal
    • common causes include exposure to water when swimming, bacterial or fingal infections, seborrhea, eczema and chronic conditions such as allergies
  28. presbyacusis
    • impairment of hearing resulting from old age; also call presbyacusia
    • usually can hear low tones but not high tones; irreversible
  29. pressure-equalizing (PE) tubes
    • tubes that are inserted through the tympanic membrane, commonly to treat chronic otitis media; also called tympanostomy tubes or ventilation tubes
    • remain in the ear several months, then fall out on their own or are removed surgically
  30. tinnitus
    • perception of ringing, hissing, or other sounds in the ears or head when no external sound is present
    • may be caused by a blow to the head, ingestion of large doses of aspirin, anemia, noise exposure, stress, impacted wax, hypertension and certain types of medications and tumors
  31. vertigo
    • hallucination of movement, or a feeling of spinning or dizziness
    • may be caused by a variety of disorders, including Meniere disease and labyrinthitis
  32. audiometry
    measurement of hearing acuity at various sound wave frequencies
  33. caloric stimulation test
    • test that uses different water temperatures to assess the vistibular portion of the nerve of the inner ear (acoustic nerve) to determine if nerve damage is the cause of vertigo
    • measured with water
  34. electronystagmography (ENG)
    • method of assessing and recording eye movements by measuring the electrical activity of the extraocular muscles
    • measured with electrodes
  35. ophthalmodynamometry
    • measurement of the blood pressure of the retinal vessels
    • screening test used to determine reduction of blood flow in the carotid artery
  36. tonometry
    • evaluation of intraocular pressure by measuring the resistance of the eyeball to indentation by an applied force
    • used to detect glaucoma
  37. visual acuity (VA) test
    part of an eye examination that determines the smalled letters that can be read on a standardized chart at a distance of 20 feet
  38. goinoscopy
    examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye to deterine ocular motility and rotation and diagnose and manage glaucoma
  39. ophthalmoscopy
    • visual examination of the interior of the eye using a hand held instrument called an opphthalmoscope, which has various adjustable lenses for magnification and a light source to illuminate the interior of the eye.
    • used to detect eye disorders as well as other disorders that cause changes in the eye
  40. otoscopy
    visual examinatin of the external auditory canal and the typanic membrane using an otoscope
  41. pneumatic otoscopy
    procedure that assesses the ability of the tympanic membrane to move in response to a change in air pressure
  42. retinoscopy
    • evaluation of refractive errors of the eye by projecting a light into the eyes and determining the movement of reflected light rays
    • especially important in determining errors of refraction in babies and small children who cannot be refracted by traditional methods
  43. dacryocystography
    • radiographic imaging procedures of the nasolacrimal (tear) glands and ducts
    • performed for excessive tearing (epiphora) to determine the cause of hypersecretion of the lacrimal gland or obstruction in the lacrimal passages
  44. fluorescein angiography
    • assesses blood vessels and their leakage in and beneath the retina after injedtion of fluorescein dye. The dye circulates while photographs of the vessels within the eye are obtained
    • facilitates the in vivo study of the retinal blood flow circulation an dis particularly sueful in the management of diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration, two leading causes of blindness
  45. orthoptic training
    exercises intended to improve eye movements or visual tracking that use training glasses, prism glasses or tinted or colored lenses
  46. blepharoplasty
    cosmetic surgery that removes fatty tissue above and below the eyes that commonly form as a result of the aging process or excessive exposure to the sun
  47. cochlear implant
    artificial hearing device that produces useful hearing sensations by electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear; also called bionic ear
  48. cyclodialysis
    formation of an opening between the anterior chamber and the suprachoroidal space for the draining of aqueous humor in glaucoma
  49. enucleation
    • removal of the eyeball from the orbit
    • performed to treat cancer of the eye when the tumor is large and fills most of the structure
  50. evisceration
    • removal of the contents of the eye while leaving the sclera and cornea intact
    • performed when the blind eye is painful or unsightly. The eye muscles are left intact, and a thin prosthesis called a cover shell is fitted over the sclera and cornea
  51. mastoid antrotomy
    surgical opening of a cavity within the mastoid process
  52. otoplasty
    • corrective surgery for a deformed or excessively large or small pinna
    • also performed to rebuild new ears for those who lost them through burns or other trauma or were born without them
  53. phacoemulsification
    method of treating cataracts by using ultrasonic waves to disintergrate a cloudy lens, which is then aspirated and removed
  54. radial keratotomy (RK)
    • incision of the cornea for treatment of nearsightedness or astigmatism
    • hairline radial incisions are made on the outer portion of the cornea that will allow the cornea to be flattened, to correct nearsightedness or to reshape an irregular curvature of the cornea in astigmatism
  55. sclerostomy
    • surgical formation of an opening in the sclera
    • commonly performed in conjunction with surgery for glaucoma
  56. tuning fork test
    method used to evaluate sound conduction using a vibrating tuning fork.
  57. Rinne (tuning fork test)
    • evaluates bone conductino (BC) versus air conduction (AC) of sound
    • tuning fork placed in front of the auditory meatus and on mastoid bone
  58. Weber (tuning fork test)
    • evaluates bone conduction of sound in both ears at the same time
    • tuning fork placed on the center of the forehead
  59. typanoplasty
    reconstruction of the eardrum, commonly due to perforation; also called myringoplasty
  60. antibiotics, ophthalmic
    • inhibit growth of microorganisms that infect the eye
    • dispensed as topical ointments and solutions to reat various bacterial eye infections such as conjunctivitis (pinkeye)
  61. antibiotics, ophthalmic generic and trade names
    erythromycin base (no generic name)
  62. antiglaucoma agents
    decrease aqueous humor production by constricting the pupil to open the angle between the iris and cornea
  63. antiglaucoma agents generic and trade names
    • timolol; trade name betimol
    • acetazolamide; trade name diamox
  64. mydriatics
    • drugs that disrupt papasympathetic nerve supply to the eye or stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, causing the pupil to dilate
    • commonly used to dilate the pupil to treat inflammatory conditions or in preparation for internal examinations of the eye
  65. mydriatics generic and trade names
    atromine sulfate; no trade names
  66. ophthalmic decongestants
    • constrict the small arterioles of the eye, decreasing redness and relieving conjunctival congestion
    • are over the counter products that temporarily relieve the itching and minor irritatoin commonly associated with allergy
  67. ophthalmic decongestants generic and trade names
    tetrahydrozoline; trade name Murine, Visine
  68. ophthalmic moisturizers
    • soothe dry eyes due to environmental irritants and allergens
    • administered topically and may also be used to facilitate ophthalmoscopic examination in gonioscopy and ophthalmoscopy
  69. ophthalmic moisturizers generic and trade names
    buffered isotonic solutions; trade names Akwa Tears, Moisture Eyes
  70. antiemetics
    treat and prevent nausea, vomiting, dizziness and vertigo by reducing the sensitivity of the inner ear to motion or inhibiting stimuli from reaching the part of the brain that triggers nausea and vomiting
  71. antiemetic generic and trade names
    meclizine; trade names Antrizine, Bonine, Meni-D
  72. otic analgesics
    • provide temporary relief from pain and inflammation associated with otic disorders
    • may be prescribed for otitis media, otitis externa and swimmer's ear. Some otic analgesics are also wax emulsifiers
  73. otic analgesic generic and trade names
    antipyrine and benzocaine. Trade names: Allergan Ear Drops, A/B Otic
  74. wax emulsifiers
    • loosen and help remove impacted cerumen (ear wax)
    • excessive wax may be washed out, vacuumed out or removed using special instruments
  75. wax emulsifier generic and trade names
    carbamide peroxide: trade name Debrox Drops, Murine Ear Drops

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