Chap 14 Terminology.txt

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Chap 14 Terminology.txt
2010-11-22 12:09:48
Chap Terminology medical coding terminology

Chap 14 Terminology
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  1. Afferent
    Carry or move inward or toward a central structure
  2. blood-brain barrier
    protective mechanism that blocks specific substances found in the bloodstream from entering delicate brain tissue
  3. central nervous system (CNS)
    network of nervous tissue found in the brain and spinal cord
  4. efferent
    carry or move away from a central structure
  5. nerve fiber
    projection of a neuron, especially the axon that transmits impulses
  6. neurilemma
    additional sheath external to myelin that is formed by Schwann cells and found only on axons in the peripheral nervous system
  7. ventricle
    chamber or cavity of an organ that receives or holds a fluid
  8. CENTRAL - Brain
    center for thought and emotion, interpretation of sensory stimuli, and coordination of body functions
  9. CENTRAL - Spinal cord
    main pathway for transmission of information between the brain and body
  10. PERIPHERAL - Cranial Nerves
    Includes 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the base of the skull and may act in either a motor capacity, sensory capacity or both
  11. PERIPHERAL - Spinal Nerves
    Includes 31 pairs of nerves that emerge from the spine and act in both motor and sensory capacities
  12. 4 Major Sturctures of the Brain
    • Cerebrum
    • Cerebellum
    • Disencephalon
    • Brainstem
  13. 4 types of Neuroglia
    • Ependymocytes
    • Astrocytes
    • Oligodendrocytes
    • Microglia
  14. Sympathic Division
    • Dilates pupils
    • Inhibits the flow of saliva
    • Relaxes bronchi
    • Accelerates heart rate
    • Slows digestive activities
    • Constricts visceral blood vessels
  15. Parasympathetic Division
    • Constricts pupils
    • Increases the flow of saliva
    • Constricts bronchi
    • Slows heart rate
    • Accelerates digestive activities
    • Dilates visceral blood vessels
  16. agnosia
    inability to comprehend auditory, visual, spatial, olfactory or other sendations even though the sensory sphere is intact
  17. asthenia
    weakness, debility or loss of strength
  18. ataxia
    lack of muscle coordination in the execution of voluntary movement
  19. aura
    • premonitory awareness of an approaching physical or mental disorder
    • peculiar sensation that preceeds seizures
  20. autism
    developmental disorder characterized by extreme withdrawal and an abnormal absorption in fantasy, usually accompanied by an inability to communicate even on a basic level
  21. closed head trauma
    • injury to the head in which the dura mater remains intact and brain tissue is not exposed
    • injury site may occur at the impact site, where the brain hits the inside of the skull (coup) or at the rebound site, where the opposite side of the brain strikes the skull (contracoup)
  22. coma
    abnormally deep unconsciousness with absence of voluntary response to stimuli
  23. concussion
    • injury to the brain, occaisionally with transient loss of consciousness as a result of injury or trauma to the head
    • delayed symptoms of concussion may include headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision
  24. convulsion
    any sudden and violent contraction of one or more muscles
  25. dementia
    broad term that refers to cognitive deficit, including memory impairment
  26. dyslexia
    inability to learn and process written nlanguage despite adequate intelligence, sensory ability and exposure
  27. Guillain-Barre syndrome
    autoimmune condition that causes acute inflammation fo the peripheral nerves in which myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response and sudden muscle weakness.
  28. herpes zoster
    • painful, acute infectious disease of the posterior root ganglia of only a few segments of the spinal or cranial nerves; also called shigles
    • caused by the same organism that causes chickenpox in children.
  29. Huntington chorea
    • inherited disease of the CNS characterized by quick, involuntary movements, speech disturbances and mental deterioration
    • Onset is commonly between ages 30 - 50
  30. hydrocephalus
    accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain, causing increased intracranial pressure (ICP), thinning of brain tissue and separation of cranial bones
  31. lethargy
    abnormal inactivity or lack of response to normal stimuli; also called sluggishness
  32. neurosis
    nonpsychotic mental illness that triggers feeling of distress and anxiety and impairs normal behavior
  33. palsy
    paralysis, usually partial, and commonly characterized by weakness and shaking or uncontrolled tremor
  34. Bell palsy
    • facial paralysis caused by a functional disorder of the seventh cranial nerve, associated with herpes virus
    • self limiting and usually spontaneously resolves in 3-5 weeks
  35. cerebral palsy
    • type of paralysis that affects movement and body position and sometimes, speech and learning ability
    • commonly occurs as a result of trauma to the brain during the birthing process
  36. paralysis
    • loss of voluntary motion in one or more muscle groups with or without loss of sensatoin
    • common causes are strokes and spinal cord injuries
    • strokes - one side of the body
    • spinal cord injuries - paralysis below the site of the injury
  37. hemiplegia
    paralysis of one side of the body, typically as the result of a stroke; also called unilateral paralysis
  38. paraplegia
    paralysis of both lower limbs, typically as a result of trauma or disease of the lower spinal cord
  39. quadriplegia
    paralysis of both arms and lefs, typically as a result of trauma or disease of the upper spinal cord
  40. phychosis
    major emotional disorder in which contact with reality is lost to the point that the indiviual is incapable of meeting challenges of daily life
  41. spina bifida
    • defect in which the neural tube (tissue that forms the brain and spinal chord in the fetus) fails to close during embryogenesis
    • includes: meningocele, meningomyelocele and occulta
  42. meningocele
    form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord develops properly but the meninges protrude through the spine
  43. myelomeningocele
    most severe form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude throught he spine
  44. occulta
    form of spina bifida in which one or more vertebrae are malformed and the spinal cord is covered with a layer of skin
  45. paresthesia
    • sensation of numbness, prickling, thingling, or heighted sensitivity
    • can be caused by disorders affecting the CNS such as stroke, TIA, MS, transverse myelitis and encephalitis
  46. poliomyelitis
    • inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
    • preventable with standard vaccinations administered to children
  47. Reye Syndrome
    • acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the brain, liver and possibly the pancreas, heart, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes
    • usually seen in children younger than 15
  48. sciatica
    severe pain in the lef along the course of the sciatic nerve felt at the base of the spine, down the thigh and radiating down the leg due to a compressed nerve
  49. syncope
    temporary loss of consciousness due to the sudden decline of blood flow to the brain; also called fainting
  50. vasovagal syncope
    syncope due to a drop in blood pressure brought on by the response of the nervous system to abrupt emotional stress, pain or trauma
  51. tonic-clonic seizure
    general type of seizure characterized by the loss of consciousness and stiffening of the body (tonic phase) followed by rhythmic, jerking movements (clonic phase)
  52. transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    • temporary interference with blood supply to the brain lasting from a few minutes to a few hours
    • symptoms may include numbness or weakness in the extremities, esp on one side of the body; confusion or dificulty in talking or understanding speech; visual impairment; dizziness; loss of balance and difficulty walking
  53. electroencephalography (EEG)
    • recording of electrical activity in the brain, whose cells emit distinct patterns of rhythmic electrical impulses
    • diff wave patterns are assoc w/ normal and abnormal waking and sleeping states. They help diagnose such conditions as tumors, infections and seizure disorders
  54. electromyography (EMG)
    • recording of electrical signals (action potentials) that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to assess nerve damage
    • an electrode inserted into a muscle records impulses and displays them on a monitor called an oscilloscope
  55. lumbar puncture
    • needle puncture of the spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic puposes, introduce anesthetic agents into the spinal canal, or remove fluid to allow other flulids (such as radiopaque substances) to be injected
    • also called spinal puncture and spinal tap
  56. stereotaxic radiosurgery
    • precise method of locating and destroying sharply circumscribed lesions on specific, tiny areas of pathological tissue in deep-seated structures of the central nervous system
    • also called sterotaxy or sterotactic surgery
    • used in the treatment of seizure disorders, aneurysms, brain tumors and many other neuropathological conditions and is performed w/o a surgical incision. The pathological site is localized with 3D coordinates and high doses of radiation are used to destroy it
  57. thalamotomy
    • partial destruction of the thalamus to treat intractable pain, involuntary movements or emotional disturbances
    • produces few neurological deficits or changes in personality
  58. Tractotomy
    • Transection of a nerve tract in the brainstem or spinal cord
    • sometines used to relieve intractable pain
  59. trephination
    technique that cuts a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure
  60. vagotomy
    • interruption of the funcction of the vagus nerve to relieve peptic ulcer
    • performed when ulcers in the stomach and duodenum do not respond to medication or changes in diet