Chapter 13

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harstanner
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51168
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Chapter 13
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2010-11-25 23:34:29
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Anatomy Physiology Chapter Central Nervous System
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Chapter 13 Central Nervous System
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  1. separates the two hemispheres of the cerebellum
    Tentorium Cerebelli
  2. separates the two hemispheres of the cerebellum
    Falx Cerebelli
  3. strong, white fibrouse tissue; outer layer of meninges and inner periosteum of the cranial bones
    Dura Mater
  4. delicate, cobweblike layer between the dura mater and pia mater
    Arachnoid Mater
  5. innermost, transparent layer; adheres to the outer surface of the brain and spinal cord; contains blood vessels; beyond the spinal cord, forms a slender filament called filum terminale
    Pia Mater
  6. located between teh dura mater and inside the bony covering of the spinal cord; contains a supporting suchion of fat and other connective tissues (virtually absent around brain)
    Epidural Space
  7. located between the dura mater and arachnoid mater; contains lubricating serous fluid
    Subdural Space
  8. located between the arachnoid and pia mater; contains a significant amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    Subarachnoid Space
  9. found within the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord and within the cavities and canals of the brain and spinal cord
    Cerebrospinal Fluid
  10. fluid filled spaces within the brain; four ventricles within the brain
    Ventricles
  11. one located in each jemisphere of the cerebrum
    First and Second Ventricles (lateral)
  12. thin, vertical pocket of fluid below and medial to the lateral ventricles
    Third Ventricle
  13. tiny, diamond-shaped space where the cerebellum attaches to the back of the brainstem
    Fourth Ventricle
  14. cell bodies of unipolar sensory neurons make up a small region of gray matter in the dorsal nerve root
    Dorsal Root Ganglion
  15. a singel mixed nerve on each side of the spinal cord where the dorasal and ventral nerve roots join together
    Spinal Nerve
  16. bundle of nerve roots extending (along with the filum terminale) from the conus medullaris
    Cauda Equina
  17. clusters of neuron cell bodies located in the reticular formation
    Nuclei
  18. oval projection located lateral to the pyrmids
    Olive
  19. two bulges of white matter located on the ventral side of the medulla; formed by fibers of they pyramidal tracts
    Pyramids
  20. reflex center for all spinal reflexes; spinal refleex center are located in the gray matter of the cord
    Spinal Cord
  21. coordination of posture and balance
    Vestibulospinal Tracts
  22. head and neck movements during visual reflexes
    Tectospinal Tracts
  23. transmit impluses that coordinate body movements and maintenance of posture
    Rubrospinal Tracts
  24. maintain posture during movement
    Reticulospina Tracts
  25. voluntary movement on the same side of body
    Anterior Corticospinal Tracts
  26. voluntary movements on opposite side of the body
    Lateral Corticospinal Tract
  27. all axons that compose one tract serve one general function
    Functional
  28. all axons of any one tract originate in the same structure and terminate in the same structure
    Structural
  29. conduct impulses down the cord from the brain
    Descending tracts
  30. conduct impulses up the cord to the brain
    Ascending Tracts
  31. landmark in midbrain
    Corpora Quadrigemina
  32. contains auditory centers
    Inferior Colliculus
  33. Contains visual center
    Superior Colliculus
  34. cluster of cell bodies of neurons involved in muscular control
    Red nucleus and substantia nigra
  35. important sensory tracts that pass through the brainstem
    Spinothalamic
  36. sensory tract whose axon terminate in the gray matter of the brainstem
    Fasciculia cuneatus and gracilis and spinoreticular tracts
  37. conduct impulses from neuron cell boides located in the cerbellar cortex to neurons whose dendrites and cell bodies compose nuclei located in the interior of the cerebellum
    Shorter tracts
  38. composed of short and long tracts
    Internal white matter
  39. two of the major tracts present in the white matter of the brainstem
    Corticospinal and reticulospinal tracts
  40. vomiting, coughing, sneezing and so on
    Nonvital reflexes
  41. contains reflexes mediated by 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th cranial nerves and pneumotaxic centers that help regulate respiration
    Pons
  42. contains center for certain cranial nerve reflexes
    Midbrain
  43. contains more neurons than the rest of the nervous system; second largest part of the brain
    Cerebellum
  44. internal white matter of the crebellum
    Arbor Vitae
  45. conduct impulses to and from the cerebellum; fibers enter or leave by the way of three pairs of peduncles
    Longer tracts
  46. composed chiefly of tracts into the cerebellum from the medulla and cord
    Inferior Cerebellar Peduncles
  47. composed almost entirely of tracts into the cerebellum from the pons
    Middle cerebellar peduncles
  48. composed principally of tracts from dentate nuclei in the cerebellum through the red nucleus of the midbrain to the thalamus
    Superior Cerebellar Peduncles
  49. two of the most important groups of nuclei comprising the thalamus; located in posterior region of each lateral mass; play role in processing auditory and visual input
    Geniculate bodies
  50. gray matter located just above and on either side of the optic chiasma
    Supraoptic Nuclei
  51. located close to the wall of the third ventricle
    Paraventricular Nuclei
  52. posterior part of hypothalamus, involved with olfactory sense
    Mamillary bodies
  53. the stalk leading to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
    Infundibulum
  54. outer surface made up of six layers of gray matter
    Cerebral Cortex
  55. convolutions; some are named: precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampal gyrus
    Gyri
  56. deepter grooves, divide each cerebral hemisphere into lobes; four prominent
    Fissures
  57. deepest fissure; divides cerebrum into two hemispheres
    Longitudinal Fissure
  58. groove between fronal and parietal lobes
    Central Sulcus (fissure of Rolando)
  59. groove between temporal lobe below and parietal lobes above; island of Reil lies deep in lateral fissure
    Lateral Fissure (Fissure of Sylvius)
  60. grooves that separates occipital lobe from parietal lobes
    Parietooccipital fissure
  61. composed of caudate nucleus, internal capsul, and lentiform nucleus
    Corpus Striatum
  62. extend from one convolution to a corresponding convolution in the other hemisphere; compose the corpus callosum and anterior and posterior commissure
    Commissural Tracts
  63. most numerous cerebral tracts; extend from one convolution to another in the same hemisphere
    Association Tracts
  64. extension of the sensory spinothalamic tracts and motor corticospinal tracts
    Projection Tracts
  65. regulation of voluntary (conscious) motor control related to posture, walking, and other repetitive movements; possible roles in thinking and learning
    Basal Nuclei Function
  66. islands of gray matter located deep inside the white matter of each hemisphere
    Basal Nuclei Structure
  67. cardinal principle about somatic motor pathways; only one final common path, the motor neuron from the anterior gray horn of the spinal cord, conduts impluses to skeletal muscles
    Principle of the final common path
  68. also know as corticospinal tract
    Pyramidal tracts
  69. mushc more complex than pyramidal tracts
    Extrapyramidal Tracts
  70. set of coordination commands that control the programmed motor activiy mediated by extrapyramidal pathways
    Motor Program
  71. unable to perform complex functions
    Profound degeneration
  72. temporary memory lapse or difficulty with complex motor tasks
    Milder degeneration
  73. ultimate regulator of the body; essential to survival
    Central Nervous System
  74. functions are cude touch and pressure sensation
    Spinothalamic Pathway
  75. transmit impulses that produce discrimination touch and pressure sensations and kinesthesia
    Medial Lemniscal System Function
  76. also know as the emotional brain
    Limbic system
  77. lesions in speech centers
    Aphasias
  78. areas in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes
    Speech centers
  79. in the gyrus immediately anterior to the precentral gyrus; activates groups of muscles simultaneously
    Secondary Motor area
  80. primary somatic motor area; controls individual muscles
    Precentral gyrus
  81. sensations of touch, pressure, temperature, proprioception, and similar perceptions that require complex sensory organs
    Somatic Senses
  82. Primary visual areas
    Occipital lobe
  83. primary auditory area
    Tansverse gyrus
  84. cheifly somatic motor area; impulses from neurons in this area descend over motor tracts and stimulate skeletal muscles
    Percentral gyrus
  85. mainly general somatic sensory area; receives impulses from receptors activated by heat, cold, and touch stimuli
    Postcentral gyrus

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