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What is Energy?
The Capacity to do work.
What is Chemical Work?
Enables cells and organisms to grow.
What is Transport Work?
Enables cells to move molecules to create concentration gradients.
What is Mechanical Work?
Is used for movement.
What is the First Law Of Thermodynamics?
Total amount of energy in the universe is constand & Energy can not be created nor destroyed.
What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics?
Processes move from state of order disorder or entropy
What is Kinetic Energy?
It is the energy of motion
What is Potential Energy?
It is stored Energy
A chemcial Reaction beings with what and ends with what?
- Begins: With one or more Reactants
- Ends: With one or more Products
How is the Reaction Rate Measured?
It is measured as the change in concentration of products with time.
What is Free Energy of the molecule?
The Energy stored in the chemical bonds of the molecule and available to perform work.
What is Activiation Energy?
Is the inital input of energy required to begin a reaction.
What is Exergonic Reaction?
Energy Producing reactions.
What is Endergonic Reaction?
Energy Utilizing reactions
What do Metabolic pathway couple?
Endergonic and exergonic reactions
Energy for driving endergonic reactions is stored where?
What is a Reversible reaction?
A reaction that can proceed in both directions.
What is an Irreversible Reaction?
It is a reaction that can proceed in one direction but not the other.
What determinds whether that reaction can be reversed?
Net Free Energy
What are Enzymes?
They are biological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions wiouth themselves being changed.
What are Substrates?
They are the reactants in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
What does Enzyme specificity mean?
Mean that Enzyme react with only limited and selected substates
What does Induced fit model mean?
It states neither the substate nor the products can bend to bind with the enzyme the enzyme must bend to allow reaction.
Temperature and pH are what to Enzymes?
What are enzymes when Modulators are destoryed?
They are denatured Enzymes
What is feedback inhibition?
It is an example of negative feedback that inhibits the activity of early enzymes and usually involves modification of enzyme.
Some enzymes are produced as inactive precursors and must be activated by what?
What are coenzymes?
Reversible reactions always reach a state of what?
Resverible reactions follow what law?
Law of mass action.
What is the Law of Mass Action?
It states what when a reaction is at quilibrium the ratio of substrates to products is always the same and if the concentration of a substate or product changes the equilibrium will be distrubed.
What can most reactions be classifed as?
What does Gylcolysis do?
Coverts glucose to pyruvate
What is Metabolism?
All the chemical reactions in the body
What is Catabolic reactions?
Reactions that release energy and break down large biomolecules
What is Anabolic Reactions?
Reactions that require a net input of energy and synthesize large biomolecules
Cells regulate the flow of molecules through their metabloic pathways by:
- 1. Controleling enzyme concentrations
- 2. Producing allosteric and covalent modulators
- 3. Using different enzymes to catalyze reversible reactions
- 4. Isolating enzymes in tracellular organelles
- 5. Maintatining an optimum ratio of ATP and ADP
What do Aerobic pathways require?
Oxygen and yeild the most ATP
What can Anarobic Pathways that aerobic pathways cant?
They can proceed without oxygen but produce ATP in much smaller quantities
Glycolysis does not require the presence of what?
In Anaerobic metabolism pyruvate is converted to what?
in to lactate, with a net yield of two ATP for each glucose molecule
In Aerobic metabolism what happend to pyruvate?
Pyruvate go trhough the citric acid cycle yield ATP, Carbon Dioxide, water, and high energy elections captured by NADH and FADH2
Lipids are broken down for ATP production in the procces of what?
What is Gluconeogenesis?
It is when amino acids and glycerol can be converted to glucose
What does Lipid and Cholesterol synthesis require?
What are is Post-Translational modification?
It converts the newly synthesized protein to its finished form.
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