unit 9 metabolism

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unit 9 metabolism
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2010-11-29 22:55:01
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unit 9 metabolism
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  1. A balanced diet contains all the ingredients necessary to _____________
    maintain homeostasis
  2. what is nutrition?
    the absorbtion of nutrients from food
  3. how can malnutrition be avioded?
    by eating from the 6 major food groups
  4. what are properties of vitamins?
    • they are essential components of the diet
    • the body has a significant reserve of fat soluble vitamins,thus u can overdo their intake
    • water soluble vitamins are components of coenzymes and are rapidly exchanged between the fluid compartments of the body,because they are excreted from the body rapidly,its difficult to take in to much of them.
  5. what are the fat soluble vitamins?
    • vitamin A
    • vitamin D
    • vitamin E
    • vitamin K
  6. what are the water soluble vitamins?
    • B1
    • B2
    • B3
    • B5
    • B6
    • B12
    • biotin
    • vitamin C
  7. vitamin A (retinol)
    functions?
    defiency?
    • maintains epithelia,required for synthesis of visual pigment in the eye
    • night blindness ,retarded growth
  8. vitamin D (cholecalciferol)
    functions?
    defiency?
    • required for calcium and phosphorus absorption and normal bone growth
    • rickets, skeletal deterioration
  9. vitamin E (tocopherol)
    function?
    deficiency?
    • prevents breakdown of fatty acids and vitamin A
    • anemia
  10. vitamin K
    functions?
    deficiency?
    • required for synthesis of blood clotting factors by the liver
    • bleeding disorders
  11. vitamin B1 (thiamin)
    functions?
    deficiency?
    • part of enzyme involved in ATP production in the mitochondria
    • muscle weakness, cardiovascular problems
  12. vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
    functions?
    deficiency?
    • part of enzyme involved in ATP production in the mitochondria
    • epithelial and mucosal deterioration
  13. vitamin B3 (niacin)
    functions?
    deficiency?
    • part of NAD
    • CNS, GI, epithelial mucosal deterioration
  14. vitamin B5 (panothenic acid)
    functions?
    deficiency?
    • part of acetyl-CoA
    • retarded growth,CNS disturbances
  15. vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
    functions?
    deficiency?
    • part of enzyme involved in amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism
    • retarded growth,anemia,convulsions
  16. vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
    functions?
    deficiency?
    • part of enzyme involved in red blood cell production
    • impaired RBC production, perninious anemia
  17. biotin
    functions?
    deficiency?
    • part of enzyme involved in various metabolic reactions
    • fatigue, muscular pain
  18. vitamin C (absorbic acid)
    functions?
    deficiency?
    • enzyme component for collagen synthesis
    • epithelial and mucosal deterioration, scurvy
  19. what are the properties of vitamins?
    • they are essential components of the diet
    • they are inorganic ions released through the dissociation of electrolytes
  20. 3 reasons minerals are imporant?
    • ions like Na+ and C1- determine osmotic concentrations of the body fluids
    • ions in various combinations play major roles in important physiological processes
    • ions are essential cofactors in a variety of enzymatic reactions;some needed in large amounts, whereas others only are needed in trace amounts; the body has large mineral reserves
  21. what are the bulk minerals?
    • sodium
    • potassium
    • chloride
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
    • magnesium
  22. what are the trace minerals?
    • iodine
    • iron
    • zinc
    • copper
    • manganese
  23. functions of sodium?
    major cation (+) in body fluids, essential for normal muscl and nerve function
  24. functions of potassium?
    major cation (+) within cells, essential for normal muscle and nerve function
  25. functiond of chloride?
    major anion (-)in body fluids,essential for acid-base balance
  26. functions of calcium?
    Cation (+2), essential for normal muscle and nerve funtion, important mineral in bone
  27. functions of phosphorus?
    essential for ATP and DNA and bone
  28. functions of magnesium?
    enzyme component required fr normal muscle and nerve funtions
  29. functions of iodine?
    component of thyroid hormones,essential for normal metabolism
  30. functions of iron?
    component of hemoglobin and myoglobin;essential to oxygen transport
  31. functions of zinc?
    component of many enzymes
  32. functions of copper?
    required for synthesis of hemoglobin, part of some enzymes
  33. functions of manganese?
    component of some enzymes
  34. what is metabolism?
    is the sum total of chemical reactions taking place in the body
  35. cellular metabolism provides the essential funcions of?
    • periodic breakdown and replacement of organic components of the cell
    • growth and cell division
    • special processed such as secretion,contraction, and action potential propagation
  36. what is catabolism?
    large organci molecules are broken down into smaller molecules.
  37. Catabolism:
    energy is released which can be used to __________ ___ or other high energy compounds.
    carbs are broken down to____________
    triglycerides broken down to __________
    proteins broken down to _____________
    • synthesize ATP
    • short carbon chains
    • fatty acids and glycerol
    • amino acids
  38. what is Anabolism?
    small molecules are bund together to create larger molecules
  39. what are the 4 reasons cells synthesize new organic components?
    • to preform structural maintence or repairs (metabolic turnover)
    • to support growth
    • to produce seretions (secretory cells st synthesize their prducts)
    • to build nutrient reserves (cells store nutrients forwhn they are needed)
  40. ATP is like currency in what 2 ways?
    • cells earn it throug exergonic (energy relasing) reactions
    • they spend it in endergonic (eergy consuming) reactions that drive cellular activities
  41. what is phosphorylation?
    transfer of a phosphate group alowing chemical reaction to be activated;the 3 phosphates in aro have repulsive negative charges that favor the removal of the last P
  42. how domost cells generate ATP?
    by breaking down carbs,especially glucose
  43. cellular respiration (aerobic respiration)breaks down glucose to?
    produce carbon dioxide and water and of course energy(ATP)
  44. catabolic breakdown of glucose by cellular respiration is thougt to yield how much ATP?
    30-38 ATP
  45. what is glycolysis and where does it occur and how much ATP is produced>
    • the breaking or lysis of glucose molecule.
    • occurs in the cytosol of the cell, produces only a few ATP
  46. where does citric acid cycle (CAC or kreb's cycle) occur?
    occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, and produces only a few ATP
  47. where does electron transport chain (ETC) occur,and how much ATP produces?
    • occurs in the mitochondrial matrix , inner mitochondrial membrane, and mitochondrial intermembranespace
    • and produces many ATP
  48. what are NAD+ and FAD used as,and what do they do>?
    used as energy transfer molecules. they carry electrons(e-) amd H+ to the electron transport chain to optimize the production of ATP
  49. how are NAD+ and FAD written when they carry e- and H+? and also without?
    • when they carry: NADH and FADH2
    • when they dont: NAD+ and FAD
  50. what are the steps of glycolysis?
    • 1. ATP is used to phosphorylate glucose
    • 2. glucose is converted to fructose
    • 3. 1 ATP is used to phosphorylate fructose
    • 4. fructose is cleaved into two molecules
    • 5. 1 NAD combines with an e- and an H+ to get 1NADH
    • 6. 1 ATP is produced
    • 7. molecules are rearranged to produce 1 ATP and 1 pyruvate.
  51. what are the steps of the Citric Acid Cycle (CAC)?
    • 1. the acetyl compound is dropped off by CoA into the CAC
    • 2. the acetyl compound combines with oxaloacetate and the resulting carbon is rearranged as it goes around the CAC
    • 3. the CAC continues as long as pyruvat is available.
  52. what is Glycogenesis?
    anabolic pathway whereby glycogen is formed from many glucose molecules
  53. what is Glycogenlysis?
    catabolic pathway from glycogen to glucose
  54. what is lipid catabolism?
    triglycerides can be broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.
  55. what can glycerol be converted to?
    can be converted to pyruvic acid and then enter the CAC
  56. what is Beta-oxidation?
    fatty acid chains are broken down into 2-carbon fragments in the mitochondrion
  57. why are lipids an important energy reserve?
    because when they are catabolized they will provide large amounts of ATP
  58. lipid synthesis is known as?
    lipogenesis
  59. what are the 5 major groups of lipoproteins?
    • chylomicrons
    • very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs)
    • intermediate density lipoproteins (IDLs)
    • low density lipoproteins (LDLs)
    • high density proteins (HDLs)
  60. what do chylomicrons do?
    thye carry absorbed lipids from the intestinal tract to the lymphatic vessels and finally to the blood stream
  61. what do very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) do?
    they contain triglycerides made in the liver plus small quantities of phospholipids and cholesterol; there function is to transport triglycerides to the tissues
  62. what do intermediate density lipoproteins (IDLs) contain?
    smaller amounts of triglycerides than VDLs , and more cholesterol and phospholipids than LDLs
  63. what do low density lipoproteins (LDLs) contain?
    contain cholesterol which is delivered to the tissues and may end up in the plaque of the arteries making it bad cholesterol
  64. what re high density proteins (HDLs)?
    they are half lipd and half protein,, the re function is to transport excess choesterol frm peripheral tissues back to the liver for storage or excretion in te bile. its considered good cholesterol because it wont cause circulatory problems
  65. the body can synthesize ________ to __________ diffrent proteins with various forms, functions, and structures.
    • 100,000
    • 140,000
  66. what is deamination, and where is the priamry site for it?
    • it is the removal of an amino group;the highly toxic compound ammonia.
    • the liver is the priamrt site, the liver cells convert ammonia to nontoxic urea which is excreted in urine
  67. how many amino acids can the body produce?
    10 of the 20
  68. when is the absorptive state?how long does it last ?
    • it is the period following a meal
    • it continues for about 4 hours after a typical meal
  69. what is the priamry hormone of the absorptive state?
    insulin because it stimulates increased glucose uptake and utilizaion
  70. what does the liver do?
    it regulates glucose and amino acid levels
  71. what does adipose tissue do?
    adipocytes (fat cells) remove fatty acids and glycerol from the bloodstream.
  72. what is the postabsorbitive state? and how long is it?
    • is when nutrient absorption is not under way and your body has to rely on internal energy reserves to meet its demands
    • half the day
  73. what is ketosis?
    high concentrations of ketone bodies occur in the body's fluids when lipids and amino acids are used to generate ATP
  74. what is metabolic rate?
    the measure of energy used by an individual
  75. what is basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
    wha is average BMR?
    what effects it?
    • the minimum rate used for the resting awake person
    • average is 70 calories per hour or 1680 calories per day
    • sex, age, physical condition, and body weight
  76. what is a calroue?
    unit of measure for the energy content of its foods, it is the amount energy stored in te bonds of molecules
  77. why are fats said to be rich?
    whe broken down how many claories do they release?
    • because they store more energy
    • 9 calories/gram
  78. hoe many calories do carbs and proteins release when they are broken down?
    4 calories/gram
  79. we continuously produce heat as a ___________ of _________
    • byproduct
    • metabolism
  80. the more energy that is used the more ________ is _________
    • heat
    • generated
  81. where is the heat loss and heat gain center located?
    in the hypothalamus
  82. how is heat conserved?
    decreased blood flow to the skin,blood shunted to the deep veins of the body
  83. what do shivering thermogenesid do?
    increase in muscle tone increases energy consumption of skeletal muscle
  84. what does nonshivering thermogenesis do?
    hormones are released that increase metabolic activity in the tissues

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