Immun: Section 1

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Immun: Section 1
2010-01-26 08:54:52

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  1. Pathogenic Bacteria
    (2 examples)
    Clostridium difficile

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  2. Pathogenic viruses
    (2 examples)
    • HIV
    • Influenza virus
  3. Pathogenic fungus
    (2 examples)
    • Pneumocystis carinii
    • Epidermophyton floccosum
  4. Pathogenic parasites
    (2 examples)
    • Trypanosoma brucei
    • Schistosoma mansoni
  5. Epithelium
    • layers of keratinized cells,
    • first defense against infection
  6. proteoglycans
    heavily glycosylated glycoproteins
  7. glycosylation
    • enzymatic process that links saccharides to produce glycans,
    • attached to proteins, lipids, or other organic molecules
  8. Glycoproteins
    proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains
  9. Two parts of innate immune response:
    • 1) recognition pathogen is present
    • 2) Recruitment of effector mechanisms
  10. How recognition of pathogen occurs:
    soluble proteins and cell-surface receptors that bind to pathogen or altered human cells and proteins
  11. Effector mechanisms (2):
    • Effector cells
    • complement proteins
  12. Cytokines:
    soluble proteins that interact with other cells to trigger innate immune response
  13. Inflammation:
    Effect of cytokines
  14. Endothelium:
    specialized epithelium lining blood vessels
  15. Immunoglobulin:
    membrane bound form of antibody
  16. Antibodies
    • gamma globulin glycoproteins found bodily fluids of vertebrates, used by immune system to identify
    • and neutralize foreign objects
  17. B-cells express:
    Unique immunoglobulins on their surface
  18. Light chain, two domains:
    • C- constant domain
    • V- variable domain
  19. CDRs:
    • Complementarity determining regions, react with antigens
    • "hypervariable regions"
  20. Antibody isotypes (5):
    • GAMED:
    • IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD
  21. IgG subclasses differ at:
    Hinge (IgG1-4)
  22. IgA in blood:
  23. IgA in mucosal surfaces:
    Dimeric form
  24. IgM on membrane:
  25. IgM secreted from B-cell:
    • Pentameric form,
    • initiates cascade of C-reactive proteins
  26. Antigen:
    Any molecule that can be bound by antibody
  27. Epitope:
    "antigenic determinante", region of antigen bound by antibody
  28. Molecular interactions for antibody/antigen binding:
    Hydrogen bond, Ionic bond, van der Waals forces