Public Health

Card Set Information

Author:
ac177532
ID:
51263
Filename:
Public Health
Updated:
2010-11-23 02:07:48
Tags:
test
Folders:

Description:
review for test 2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user ac177532 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Sources
    of indoor air pollution
    –Tobacco smoke

    –Wood-burning stoves, fireplaces

    Gas ranges and furnaces

    • •Sick
    • Building Syndrome” – Symptoms that disappear when occupants go outdoors
    • second hand smoke






    •Second Hand smoke
  2. Formaldehyde;
    • Insulation
    • of particleboard, plywood, some floor coverings and textiles
  3. Indoor
    Air Quality, ctd
    (Consumer
    products:)
    • pesticides,
    • dry-cleaning solvents, paints and paint thinners, hair spray, air fresheners


    •Microbes such as legionella, hantavirus

    • •Allergens such as mold, house
    • mites, animal dander
  4. Global
    Effects of Air Pollution
    • •Acid rain damages forests and
    • crops, turns lakes and rivers acidic, kills fish and plants
  5. Water
    Pollution Incidents
    • •Lake Michigan, Chicago; Cholera –
    • 1885

    Minamata Bay, Japan; Mercury – 1950s

    • •Hudson River, New York – PCBs –
    • 1970s
    • •Lake Superior, Duluth
    • – Asbestos -- 1970s
    • •James River, Virginia; Kepone – 1960s
    • •Cuyahoga River, Ohio; Caught fire
    • (oil) – 1969



    • •Lake Michigan, Milwaukee –
    • Cryptosporidiosis -- 1993
  6. Clean Water Act
    Point source pollution:
    –Requirements for treating wastewater

    –Sewage treatment plants or septic systems

    –Treat with chlorine or other disinfectant

    –Sludge; Congress prohibited ocean dumping

    –Pretreatment of industrial wastes
  7. Clean Water Act
    Non point source pollution:
    –Agricultural runoff

    –Urban runoff

    –Air pollutants deposited by rain
  8. Portable Water:
    –Coagulation and flocculation

    –Settling

    –Filtration

    –Disinfection


    • •Most water on earth’s surface is
    • salt water or ice




    •Less than 1% is fresh water




    • •Water shortages in many parts of
    • the world
    • •Water shortages in U.S. south and
    • west

    •Political disputes
  9. Regulated Contaminants
    •Disinfectants; Chlorine

    •Disinfection byproducts; Chlorite

    • •Inorganic chemicals – metals,
    • asbestos, cyanide

    • •Organic chemicals; Herbicides,
    • pesticides, PCBs

    • •Microorganisms; Bacteria,
    • viruses, cryptosporidium

    •Radionuclides

    •Turbidity
  10. Before 1970s
    •Open dumps

    • –Outlawed by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA),
    • 1976
    • •Burned in incinerators or in the
    • open

    –Outlawed by Clean Air Act, 1970

    • •Poured into rivers, lakes, or
    • oceans

    • –Outlawed by Clean Water Act (1972) and Marine Protection,
    • Research, and Sanctuaries Act (1972)
  11. Sanitary Landfills
    • •Site should be dry, impervious
    • clay soil

    •Lined with plastic

    •Drains for liquids

    • •Vents to control explosive gases
    • •Tipping fee:

    –Cost of disposing of one ton of municipal waste

    –Highest cost is in northeast

    • •New York City; Fresh Kills,
    • Staten Island
  12. Alternatives to Landfills
    •Three R’s: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

    •Reduce: Buy only what’s needed; Avoid excessive packaging

    •Reuse: Use reusable items rather than disposable



    •Recycle

    –Encouraged by deposits on bottles and cans:

    –Yard sales

    –Composting




    •Waste to energy incineration:

    –Special incinerators; Still concern about pollution






    •Recycle

    –Encouraged by deposits on bottles and cans:

    –Yard sales

    –Composting




    •Waste to energy incineration:

    • –Special incinerators; Still concern about pollution
    • •Recycle
    • –Encouraged by deposits on bottles and cans:
    • –Yard sales
    • –Composting
    • •Waste to energy incineration:

    –Special incinerators; Still concern about pollution
  13. SOLID WASTE
    •Household Waste

    •Harvesting crops

    • •Raising animals
    • •Over-mining (Returning to old
    • sites
    • •Ash from emission of fossil fuels
    • (Coal, oil and natural gas)
    • •Drilling fluids other waste
    • associated with oil, gas and geothermal energy production
    • •Electronics – 2.2 Millions Tons
    • •Contains – Accounts for 80% -
    • Deposed
    • –Mercury

    • –Lead
    • -Cadium
    • •Flourescent bulbs
    • –Radiation Hazards
    • –Handle with Care
    • –Plastics – No technology to get rid of empty containers
  14. OPTIONS
    FOR GETTING RID OF SOLID WASTES
    • •Landfills
    • •Incineration
    • •Deep sea burial
    • •Source reduction
  15. Causes of Food-Borne Illness
    •Bacteria:

    –Salmonella; Eggs, poultry, meat

    • –E. coli O157:H7; Ground beef, alfalfa sprouts, unpasteurized
    • apple juice, raw milk, lettuce

    •Viruses:

    –Hepatitis A; Green onions from Mexico, shellfish

    • –Norwalk virus; Shellfish
    • •Parasites:

    • –Cyclospora; Raspberries from
    • Guatemala

    –Parasites in sushi, sashimi, ceviche
  16. Government Food Safety Activities
    • •Responsibility is divided among
    • many agencies

    • •Department of Agriculture (USDA);
    • Meat, poultry, processed eggs

    • •Food and Drug Administration
    • (FDA); All other foods
    • •States regulate shellfish
    • •State and local governments
    • regulate stores, restaurants, institutions (schools, nursing homes)
  17. Irrationality of System
    • •USDA has bigger budget, more
    • authority:

    –Regulates 20% of food

    –Detailed laws on regulation of meat

    • •FDA has smaller budget, less
    • authority:
    • –Regulates 80% of food
    • –Inspects only 1% proportion of imported food:
    • •80% of seafood is imported
    • •60% of vegetables and
    • are imported
  18. Pulsenet
    • DNA
    • fingerprinting of bacteria
  19. Leading Actual Causes of Death
    • •Tobacco
    • •Poor diet and physical inactivity
    • •Alcohol consumption
    • •Microbial agents
    • •Toxic agents
    • •Motor vehicles
    • •Firearms
    • •Sexual behavior
    • •Illicit drug use
  20. Tobacco
    • •Cancer
    • •Cardiovascular disease
    • •Chronic obstructive lung disease
    • •Infant deaths due to low birthweight
    • •Burns
  21. Poor Diet and Physical Inactivity
    • •Obesity
    • •Heart disease and stroke
    • •Diabetes
    • •Cancer


    • •Dramatic increases in
    • the 1990’s
    • •Health Police and
    • Libertarians – Those who object to being told by gov’t what to
    • do
    • •High Blood Pressure
  22. Misuse of Alcohol
    • •Motor vehicle fatalities
    • •Chronic liver disease and
    • cirrhosis
    • •Home injuries


    • •Motor vehicle fatalities
    • •Chronic liver disease and
    • cirrhosis
    • •Home injuries
  23. Government Role In Tobacco/ Alcohol
    • •Education
    • •Regulation
    • •Prohibition?



    • •1964
    • Surgeon General Report – Smoking and Health - Initial decline in smoking




    • •FDA role in improving
    • dietary habits




    • •Role of government
    • and controversies
    • •Joycelyn Elders’
    • Comments
    • •Just Say no
    • •Regulation – “The
    • Common Good” – STD Prevention – Closing of Gay Bathhouses – 1985 NYC
    • •Prohibition – 1919 –
    • 18th
    • Constitutional Amendment – A failure – Public Health benefit – Decline in cirrohosis of the
    • liver
    • •Drinking drove men to
    • violence
    • •What about today’s
    • prohibitions: Drug Use – Impact on
    • Crime and Corruption
  24. Regulations
    • •Laws against murder and assault
    • •Traffic regulations
    • •Restrictions on alcohol, drugs,
    • and tobacco
    • •Age restrictions on many
    • behaviors
    • •Sexual behavior is hard to
    • regulate
  25. Psychological Models of Health Behavior
    • •Health belief model (HBM):
    • –I am vulnerable to the threat
    • –The threat is serious
    • –By taking action I can protect myself

    • •Locus of control theory
    • (Self-efficacy):
    • –Self-efficacy is increased by previous successful performance
    • –Self-efficacy is increased by seeing others successfully
    • perform, especially if model is a peer



    • •Public health message
    • – Informing persons that they are vulnerable – The threat is serious – They can
    • take actions to protect themselves
    • •Breast self
    • examination (BSE) – Application of model
    • •People who are
    • confident to control their lives – High Self-efficacy
    • •People who believe
    • their lives are subject to chance – Low Self-efficacy
    • •Learned helplessness vs Learned
    • helpfulness – Doing all you can to overcome vs giving
    • up – Woe is me
    • •People with internal
    • locus of control or high self-efficacy = More likely to engage in health
    • promoting activities
    • •Theories are used for programs to
    • promote behavior change; Document evidence-based
  26. Social Ecological Model of Health Behavior
    • 1.Intrapersonal
    • – Knowledge – Attitudes - Skills of the individual
    • 2.Interpersonal
    • – Family – Friends – Coworkers (Personal hygiene, Eating habits – Peer
    • Pressure) – Diverse friends help
    • 3.Institutional (Organizational)
    • – Schools – Workplace – Stress impact – Safe environment – Cultural supporting
    • positive interactions – Good health conscious menus
    • 4.Community
    • factors – Faith-based orientation – Access to unhealthy life choices
    • 5.Public
    • Policy – Regulations supporting or not supporting good public health practices
    • – Walk-able communities
  27. Leading Causes of Injuries
    • •Motor vehicle injuries
    • •Firearms injuries
    • •Poisoning
    • Falls
    • •Suffocation
    • •Drowning
    • •Fires/burns
    • •Cut/pierce
  28. The “Three E’s” of Injury Prevention
    •Education

    •Enforcement

    •Engineering
  29. Social Determinants
    • Stress: physical and social conditions associated with lower SES may act directly by affecting physiological processes and indirectly by influencing behavior behavior
    • well establish contributor to heart disease
    • Education: provides the info and skills to solve problems
    • Social Support: can provide emotional instrumental assistance can buffer stress
  30. Particulate Matter
    • Products of combustion
    • •First regulated total particulate
    • •Six Cities Study; Death rates higher in most
    • polluted cities
    • •Smaller particles penetrate deeper into lungs
    • •1987 set standards for PM10
    • •1997 set standards for PM2.5
    • •Lung cancer, other lung diseases, heart
    • disease proportional to PM2.5

    ·


    ·

    o Mortality and pollution

    • o Sources of lead
    • emissions

    o Radon – Carbon monoxide

    o Lead poisoning
  31. Weather Inversion
    • •Weather inversion in London, 1952; More than
    • 4,000 deaths
    • •Donora, Pennsylvania in 1948; Similar weather
    • inversion
    • •Smog in Los Angeles in 1950s and 1960s
    • •Clean Air Act of 1970
    • •Smoke from factories
    • – Furnaces – Railroad locomotives – Blackened the air – 4,000 Deaths –
    • Respiratory and heart disease
    • •British’s first Clean
    • Air Act
    • •Donora PA – 14,000
    • people similar results – Eye – Nose – Throat Irritation – Respiratory problems
    • •US – More cars –
    • Leaded gas – Photochemical smog
    • – Air quality standards – Emission reductions
    • •Today air is cleaner
    • – Amended in 1977 and 1990
  32. Criteria Air Pollutants
    • •Particulate matter
    • •Sulfur dioxide
    • •Carbon monoxide
    • •Nitrogen oxides
    • •Ozone
    • •Lead
    • •Primary"
    • standards - Established limits to protect public
    • health, including the health of "sensitive" populations such as
    • asthmatics, children, and the elderly
    • •Secondary"
    • standards - Set limits to protect public welfare,
    • including protection against decreased visibility and damage to animals, crops,
    • vegetation, and buildings.
  33. Sulfur Dioxide
    • •Combustion of sulfur-containing
    • fuels, especially coal
    • •Irritates respiratory tract
    • •Acid rain
    • •Irritates the
    • respiratory tract – Declined since 1982
    • •Released into air by burning of fossil fuels
    • •Sulfur is present in
    • all raw materials: crude oil,
    • coal, ore
    • •Carbon monoxide –
    • Interferes with oxygen-carrying capacity – Highly toxic – Harmful to
    • cardiovascular diseased patients
  34. Nitrogen oxides
    • •Motor vehicles
    • •Responsible for yellowish-brown
    • smog
    • •Irritates respiratory tract
    • •Acid rain
    • •Contribute to ozone formation



    • •Often colorless and
    • odorless

    • •Also produced by
    • electric utilities, and other industrial, commercial, and residential sources
    • that burn fuels
    • •Contributes to global
    • warming – Market Justice Implications of Global Warming???
    • •Much involved in
    • formation of ground-level ozone – Triggers serious respiratory problems
  35. Lead
    • •Damages nervous system, blood,
    • and kidneys
    • •Used in leaded gasoline, banned
    • in 1980s
    • •Has decreased dramatically as an
    • air pollutant
    • •Health risks to children
    • •But also through
    • accidentally or intentionally eating soil or paint chips, as well as food or
    • water contaminated with lead
    • •Urban areas with high
    • levels of traffic, trasChildren and others can be exposed to lead not only through the
    • air
    • •h incinerators,
    • or other industry, as well as areas near lead smelters, battery plants, or
    • industrial facilities that burn fuel, may still have high lead levels in air




    • •In 1999, several
    • areas of the country did not meet the national health-based air quality
    • standards for lead
  36. Carbon Monoxide
    • •Odorless and colorless
    • •Formed when carbon in fuel is not
    • burned completely
    • •Woodstoves, gas stoves, cigarette
    • smoke, and unvented gas and kerosene space heaters are sources of CO indoors
  37. Asbestos
    • •Was widely used because of fire
    • resistance
    • •Used in insulation; still used in
    • roofing, gaskets, brake linings
    • •Was required in schools between
    • 1940 and 1973
    • •Fibrous dust causes scarring of
    • lungs- Lung cancer
    • •Affected asbestos workers
    • •Manville Corporation bankrupt –
    • 1982
    • •Libby, Montana
    • •World Trade Center
  38. Radiation
    • •Ultraviolet light from the sun;
    • Skin cancer and melanoma
    • •Radon gas – natural radioactivity
    • – lung cancer?
    • •Early scandals with patent
    • medicines and radium led to regulation
    • •X rays used in medicine and
    • dentistry
    • •Lessons on health effects of
    • radiation learned from atomic bombings in Japan
  39. Mercury
    • •Neurological damage in workers
    • •Minamata, Japan
    • •Emissions from coal-burning power
    • plants in US leads to air pollution, water pollution, contamination of fish
    • •Concern about fever thermometers,
    • school laboratory equipment

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview