Areas of the Cerebral Cortex

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Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
2010-11-22 22:50:27
brain central nervous system cerebral cortex

areas of the cerebral cortex and their functions
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  1. Cerebral Cortex
    Site of conscious mind; composed of gray matter; allows for self-awareness, sensation, communication, memory, voluntary movement, and understanding
  2. Name the 4 motor areas of the cerebral cortex
    • Primary Motor Cortex
    • Premotor Cortex
    • Broca's Area
    • Frontal Eye Field
  3. Primary Motor Cortex
    Allows conscious control of skilled movements
  4. Premotor Cortex
    Controls learned movements of a repetitious or patterned nature
  5. Broca's area
    Motor speech area; directs muscles for speech production; present in only one hemisphere
  6. Frontal Eye Field
    controls voluntary eye movement
  7. Sensory areas
    Allow conscious awareness of sensation
  8. Name the 8 sensory areas
    • Primary Somatosensory Cortex
    • Somatosensory Association Cortex
    • Visual Areas
    • Auditory areas
    • Olfactory Cortex
    • Gustatory Cortex
    • Visceral Sensory Area
    • Vestibular (equilibrium) Cortex
  9. Primary Somatosensory Cortex
    • Receives information from general sensory receptors in skin, and proprioceptors in skeletal muscles and joints;
    • allows for spatial discrimination
  10. Somatosensory Association Cortex
    Integration of sensory information to produce understanding of felt object
  11. Visual Areas
    • a. Primary visual cortex receives sensory information from retina
    • b. visual association area uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli
  12. Auditory areas
    • a. Primary auditory cortex interprets pitch, loudness, and location of sounds
    • b. Auditory association area uses past auditory experiences to interpret auditory stimuli
  13. Olfactory cortex
    Conscious awareness of odors
  14. Gustatory cortex
    Perception of taste stimuli
  15. Visceral Sensory Area
    Conscious perception of visceral sensations
  16. Vestibular (equilibrium) cortex
    Conscious awareness of balance
  17. Multimodal Association areas
    Receive input from multiple sensory areas and allows us to give meaning to information received
  18. Anterior Association Area
    Involved with intellect, cognition, recall, and personality; also contains contains working (short-term) memory
  19. Posterior association area
    Recognizing patterns and faces, localizing us and our surroundings in space, and binding different sensory inputs into a coherent whole
  20. Limbic association area
    Provides emotional impact that makes a scene important to us
  21. Cerebral White Matter
    Myelinated fibers bundled into tracts, responsible for communication between areas of cortex and lower CNS centers; classified by orientation as commissural, association, or projection
  22. Commissural Fibers
    Connect corresponding gray areas of cerebral hemispheres, allowing function as coordinated whole
  23. Association Fibers
    Connect different parts of the same hemisphere
  24. Projection fibers
    Tie cortex to the rest of the nervous system and to the body's receptors and effectors
  25. Basal Nuclei
    Located inferior to cerebral cortex; influence muscular control, regulate attention, cognition, and slow/stereotyped movements, inhibit antagonistic and unnecessary movements
  26. Diencephalon
    Contains thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
  27. Thalamus
    • -relay station for information entering cerebral cortex
    • -sorts, edits, and relays information
    • -mediates sensation, motor activities, cortical arousing, learning, and memory
  28. Hypothalamus
    • -Body's main visceral control center
    • -Center for emotional response
    • -Regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance, thirst
    • -Regulates sleep and wake cycle
    • -Controls hormone release by pituitary gland and produces posterior pituitary hormones
  29. Epithalamus
    Contains Pineal gland, which secretes melatonin; helps regulate sleep-wake cycle