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2010-11-22 23:52:40

chapter 11 & 12
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  1. an indvidual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
  2. a psychoanalytic technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thought, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind
    free association
  3. in freud's theory, the completely unconscious, irrational component of personaility that seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives; ruled by pleasure principle
  4. the self-perservation of life instinct, reflected in the expression of basic biological urges that perpetuate the existence of the individual and the species
  5. the psychological and emotional energy associated with expressions of sexuality; the sex drive
  6. the motive to obtain pleasure and avoid tension or discomfort; the most fundamental human motive and the guiding principles of the id
    pleasure principle
  7. In Freud’s theory, the partly conscious rational component of personality that regulates thoughts and behavior and is most in touch with the demands of the external world
  8. the partly conscious, self-evaluative, moralistic component of personality that is formed through the internalization of paternal and societal rules.
  9. methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness
    defense mechanisms
  10. the selective, involuntary pushing of threatening or upsetting information in the unconscious
  11. occurs when a person’s own unacceptable or threatening feelings are repressed and then attributed to someone else
  12. occurs when people direct their emotions (especially anger) toward things, animals, or other people that are not the real object of their feelings
  13. occurs when a feeling that produces unconscious anxiety is transformed into its opposite in consciousness
    reaction formation
  14. occurs when a person reverts to a previous phase of psychological development
  15. occurs when people refuse to admit that something unpleasant is happening, such as mistreatment by a partner; that they have a problem, such as drinking too much, or that they are feeling a forbidden emotion, such as anger
  16. Freud’s psychosexual stages
    • 1.oral
    • 2.anal
    • 3.phallic
    • 4.latency
    • 5.genital
  17. occurs during the first year of life when babies experience the world through their mouths
  18. ages 2 to 3; when toilet training and control of bodily wastes are the key issues
  19. most crucial stage for the formation of personality: lasts roughly from age 3 to age 5
  20. a conflict occurring in the phallic stage in which a child desires the parent of the other sex and views the same-sex parent as the rival
    oedipus complex
  21. when the Oedipus complex is resolved, at about 5 or 6 the child’s personality is fundamentally formed and they then stay in the latency stage, in preparation for the genital stage
  22. begins at puberty and leads to adult sexuality
  23. In Roger’s theory, the sense that you will be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to others; conditional love or acceptance
    conditional positive regard
  24. In Roger’s theory, the sense that you will be valued and loved even if you don’t conform to the standards and expectations of others; unconditional love or acceptance
    unconditional positive regard
  25. the beliefs that people have about their ability to meet the demands of a specific situation; feelings of self-confidence or self-doubt
  26. a theory of personality that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions
    trait theory
  27. personality characteristics or attributes that can easily be inferred from observable behavior
    surface traits
  28. the most fundamental dimensions of personality; the broad, basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number
    source traits
  29. a trait theory of personality that identifies extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience as the fundamental building blocks of personality
    five-factor model of personaility
  30. an interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of genes and heredity on behavior
    behavioral genetics
  31. a type of personality test that involves a person’s interpreting an ambiguous image; used to assess unconscious motives, conflicts, psychological defenses, and personality traits
    porjective test
  32. a projective test using inkblots, developed by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in 1921
    rorschach inkblot test
  33. a projective personality test that involves creating stories about each of a series of ambiguous scenes
    thematic apperception test
  34. a self-report inventory that assesses personality characteristics and psychological disorders; used to assess both normal and disturbed populations
    minnestoat multiphasic personality inventory
  35. a self-report inventory developed by Raymond Cattell that generates a personality profile with ratings on 16 trait dimensions
    sixteen personality factor questionnaire
  36. the branch of psychology that studies how people think, feel, and behave in social situations
    social psychology
  37. the study of mental processes people use to make sense out of their social environment
    social cognition
  38. study of effects of situational factors and other people on an individual’s behavior
    social influence
  39. the mental processes we use to form judgments and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of other people
    person perception
  40. “rules” or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation
    social norms
  41. the mental process of categorizing people into groups (or social categories) on the basis of their shared characteristics
    social categorization
  42. a network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors
    implicit personality theory
  43. the mental process of inferring the causes of people’s behavior, including one’s own. Also refers to the explanation made for a particular behavior
  44. the tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow causes the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it
    blaming the victim
  45. the assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
    Just-world hypothesis
  46. the tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one’s own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes
    Self-serving bias
  47. a learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, of issue in a particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative, or ambivalent
  48. an unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal (dissonance) that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions (cognitions) are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that attitudes and behavior are in conflict
    Cognitive dissonance
  49. a negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group
  50. a cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group
  51. a social group to which one belongs
  52. a social group to which one does not belong
  53. the tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably
    In-group bias
  54. the tendency to adjust one’s behavior, attitudes, or beliefs to group norms in response to real or imagined group pressure
  55. behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval
    Normative social influence
  56. behavior that is motivated by the desire to be correct
    Informational social influence
  57. the performance of an action in response to the direct orders of an authority or person of higher status
  58. a phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress
    Bystander apathy
  59. a phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers
    Diffusion of responsibility
  60. the tendency to expend less effort on a task when it is a group effort
    Social loafing
  61. the reduction of self-awareness and inhibitions that can occur when a person is a part of a group whose members feel anonymous