Psychology Online Exam 5

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Psychology Online Exam 5
2010-11-24 00:35:03
Psychology Exam

Chapters 11,12
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  1. Social Psychology
    Branch of psychology that studies how we think and behave in social situations.
  2. Social Cognition
    area of social psychology that investigates the ways we think about other people and ourselves.
  3. Social Influence
    deals with the way in which other people influence us to change our behavior and/or our beliefs.
  4. Attitude
    Evaluative belief that we hold about something.
  5. Cognitive Consistency
    We desire and strive to have attitudes and behaviors that do not contradict one another.
  6. Dissonance Theory
    Theory that predicts that we will be motivated to change our attitudes and/or our behaviors to the extent that they cause us to feel dissonance, on uncomfortable physical state.
  7. Persuasion
    A type of social influence in which someone tries to change our attitudes.
  8. Central Route To Persuasion
    A style of thinking in which the person carefully and critically evaluates persuasive arguments and generates counterarguments; the central route requires motivation and available cognitive resources.
  9. Peripheral Route To Persuasion
    One does not attempt to critically evaluate the arguments and are instead persuaded by superficial aspects of the arguments such as the likability of the person making them.
  10. Impression Formation
    One of the most important aspects of social cognition, or how we understand and make judgments about others.
  11. Attribution
    Act of assigning cause to behavior.
  12. Trait Attribution
    An attribution that assigns the cause of the behavior to the traits and characteristics of the person being judged.
  13. Situational Attribution
    An attribution that assigns the cause of the behavior to some characteristic of the situation or environment in which a behavior occurs.
  14. Fundamental Attribution Error
    Our tendency to overuse trait information and discount situational explanations of behavior when making attributions about others.
  15. Individualistic Culture
    North America and Western Europe (Western cultures) in which individual accomplishments are valued over group accomplishments.
  16. Collective Culture
    India and Japan (Asian cultures) in which group accomplishments are valued over individual accomplishments.
  17. Actor/Observer Bias
    When we observe our own behavior we tend to take situational factors more into account than we do for others.
  18. Self-Serving Bias
    Our tendency to make trait attributions for our successes and situational attributions for our failures.
  19. Stereotype
    A formed schema for a particular group of people.
  20. Prejudice
    A stereotype that is unfairly applied to all members of a group regardless of their individual characteristics.
  21. Discrimintation
    The behavioral expression of a prejudice.
  22. In-Group Bias
    Our tendency to favor people who belong to the same group that we do.
  23. Out-Group
    A group that is distinct from one's own and so usually an objects of more hostility or dislike than one's in-group.
  24. Out-Group Homogeneity Bias
    Our tendency to see out-group members as being pretty much all alike.
  25. Realistic-Conflict Theory
    Theory that prejudice stems from competition for scarce resources.
  26. Contact Hypothesis
    Theory that contact between groups in an effective means of reducing prejudice between them.
  27. Superordinate Goal
    Goal that is shared by different groups
  28. Proximity
    Geographical closeness.
  29. Balance Theory
    Theory that when we are attracted to people who do not share our attitudes, we feel an imbalance that causes dissonance, which motivates us to change in some way to reduce this dissonance. (p.508)
  30. Matching Hypothesis
    Theory that we are attracted to people whose level of physical attractiveness is similar to our own.
  31. Norm
    Unwritten rule or expectation for how group members should behave.
  32. Cohesiveness
    The degree to which members wish to maintain membership in the group or value their group membership.
  33. Conformity
    Behaving in accordance with group norms.
  34. Normative Conformity
    Conformity that occurs when group members change their behavior to meet group norms but are not persuaded to change their beliefs and attitudes.
  35. Informational Conformity
    Conformity that occurs when conformity pressures actually persuade group members to adopt new beliefs and/or attitudes.
  36. Deindividuation
    A state in which a person's behavior becomes controlled more by external norms than by the person's own internal values and morals.
  37. Groupthink
    Occurs when a group fixates on one decision and members assume that it must be the correct one, without carefully examining other alternatives.
  38. Compliance
    Yielding to a simple request.
  39. Obedience
    Yielding to a demand.
  40. Foot-In-The-Door Compliance
    Increasing compliance by first asking people to give in to a small request, which then paves the way for compliance with a larger request.
  41. Door-In-The-Face Compliance
    Increasing compliance by first asking people to give in to a very large request and then, after they refuse, asking them to give in to a smaller request.
  42. Reciprocity
    A strong norm that states that we should treat others as they treat us or we expect others to reciprocate our behaviors.
  43. Slippery Slope
    The use of Foot-In-The-Door compliance in an obedience situation to get people to obey increasing demands. (p.523)
  44. Psychological Distance
    The degree to which one can disassociate oneself from the consequences of his/her actions.
  45. Destructive Obedience
    Obedience to immoral, unethical demands that cause harm to others.
  46. Debriefing
    After an experiment participants are fully informed of the nature of the study.
  47. Instrumental Aggression
    Aggression used to facilitate the attainment of one's goal.
  48. Hostile Aggression
    Aggression that is meant to cause harm to others.
  49. Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
    The theory that frustration causes aggressive behavior.
  50. Altruism
    Helping another without being motivated by selfgain.
  51. Helping Behavior
    Another term for altruism.
  52. Bystander Effect
    The idea that the more witnesses there are to an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to offer help.
  53. Diffusion Of Responsibility
    Idea that responsibility for taking action is diffused equally to all the people witnessing the event.
  54. Pluralistic Ignorance
    The idea that we use the behavior of others to help determine whether a situation is really an emergency requiring our help; if no one else is helping, we may conclude that help isn't needed.
  55. Health Psychology
    Subfield of psychology that investigates the relationship between people's behaviors and their health.
  56. Stress
    Any event or environmental stimulus (stressors) that we respond to because we perceive it as challenging or threatening.
  57. Life Event
    A change in one's life, good or bad, that requires readjustment.
  58. Daily Hassels
    The everyday irritations and frustrations that individuals face.
  59. Conflict
    Having to choose between two or more needs, desires, or demands.
  60. Approach-Approach Conflict
    A situation in which a person must choose between two like able or positive events.
  61. Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
    A situation in which a person must choose between two undesirable or negative events.
  62. Approach-Avoidance Conflict
    A situation in which a person is faced with a desire or need that has both positive and negative aspects.
  63. Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflict
    A situation that poses several alternative that each have positive and negative features.
  64. Primary Appraisal
    Our initial interpretation of an event as either irrelevant, positive, or stressful.
  65. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
    The general physical responses we experience when faced with a stressor. (p.551)
  66. Alarm Recation
    First phase of (GAS) it is the bodily responses that are immediately triggered when we initially an event as stressful and activates the endocrine system.
  67. Resistance Stage
    Stage two of (GAS) body continues to cope with stressors and the nervous and endocrine systems continue to be activated. (p.552)
  68. Exhaustion Stage
    Stage three of (GAS) in which bodily resources are drained, and wear and tear on the body begins.
  69. Immunosuppression
    The corticosteroids and endorphins that are released into our body during the stress response actually reduce and dampen the activity of our immune system or the reduction in activity of the immune system.
  70. Coping
    The behaviors that we engage in to manage stressors. (p.555)
  71. Problem-Focused Coping
    Behaviors that aim to control or alter the environment that is causing stress.
  72. Emotion-Focused Coping
    Behaviors aimed at controlling the internal. subjective, emotional reactions to a stress.
  73. ´╗┐Cognitive Reappraisal
    An active and conscious process in which we alter our interpretation of a stressful event.
  74. Defensive Mechanisms
    Sigmund Freud, unconscious emotional strategies that are engaged in to reduce anxiety and maintain a positive self-image.
  75. Biofeedback
    An electronic device that measures and records bodily changes so that an individual can monitor and control these changes more effectively. (p.558)
  76. Progressive Relaxation Training
    A stress management technique in which a person learns how to systematically tense and relax muscle groups in the body.
  77. Social Support
    Having close and positive relationships with others.
  78. Meditation
    Mental exercises in which people consciously focus their attention to heighten awareness and bring their mental processes under more control.
  79. Type A Personality
    A personality that is aggressive, ambitious, and competitive.
  80. Type B Personality
    A personality characterized by patience, flexibility, and an easygoing manner.
  81. Learned Helplessness
    A passive response to stressors based on exposure to previously uncontrolled, negative events.
  82. Hardy Personality
    A personality, high in the traits of commitment, control, and challenge, that appears to be associated with strong stress resistance. (p.565, salvatore maddi & suzanne kobasa)
  83. Health-Defeating Behaviors
    Behaviors that increase the chance of illness, disease, or death.
  84. Health-Promoting Behaviors
    Behaviors that decrease the chance of illness, disease, or death.