CH1:History & Approaches Notes

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ht2lvu
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51475
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CH1:History & Approaches Notes
Updated:
2010-11-24 01:49:51
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psychology
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Background of psychology and psychological views.
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  1. Clever Hans Experiment background
    • horse: Clever Hans
    • owner: William Von Osten
    • psychologist: Pfungst
  2. Clever Hans Experiment story
    • horse could do math
    • Pfungst very skeptical
    • Pfungst controlled conditions between horse & owner
    • horse failed
    • Pfungst needed empirical proof
  3. pseudopsychology
    false psychology
  4. psychology
    scientific study of mental processes & behavior
  5. greek philosopher's goals
    quest for knowledge & understanding
  6. plato
    • believed knowledge is innate
    • brain is seat of mental processes
    • quest for perfect knowledge
  7. aristotle
    • did not believe in innate ideas
    • heart is seat of mental processes
    • environment brings everything out
  8. Rene Descartes
    • dualism
    • brain controlled behavior
    • knowledge is innate
    • mind & body work together
  9. dualism
    combination of mind and body
  10. John Locke
    • mind at birth is "Tabula Rasa" blank slate
    • experience is everything
    • nature & nurture
  11. Charles Darwin
    • theory of evolution
    • natural selection & survival of the fittest
  12. theory of evolution
    animals had adapted and changed overtime
  13. Wilhelm Wundt
    • structuralism
    • "Father of Psychology"
  14. structuralism
    • elements of the mind
    • break conscious experience into objective sensations
    • record subjective feelings
    • developed introspection
    • WHAT
  15. introspection
    reporting on one's conscious mental experience
  16. William James
    functionalism
  17. functionalism
    • purpose & function
    • consciousness as a stream
    • continually flowing
    • WHY
  18. Max Wertheimer
    gestalt psychology
  19. gestalt psychology
    • perceptual wholes
    • whole is worth more than sum of parts
    • Max Wertheimer,Kurt Koffa, Wolfgang Kohler
  20. John Watson, Rosalie Rayner, BF Skinner
    behavorism
  21. behavorism
    • observable events & stimuli
    • should not focus on mind because its unobservable
    • rewards & punishment
    • environment shapes who you are
  22. Sigmund Freud
    psychoanalysis
  23. psychoanalysis
    • unconscious process
    • repressed memories
    • early childhood experiences
  24. biological view
    • causes of behavior in functioning of genes, brain, and nervous system
    • neuroscience
  25. neuroscience
    understanding how brain creates thoughts, feelings, consciousness, & other thought processes
  26. Evolutionary View
    • Charles Darwin
    • individual behavior examined through natural selection
  27. natural selection
    physical characteristics of species change in order to gain competitive advantage
  28. cognitive view
    • mental processes (process info)
    • learning, memory, perception, & thinking
    • brain = biological computer
  29. humanistic view
    • positive side
    • growth
    • potential
    • free will
    • self-actualization
  30. Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers
    humanistic view
  31. sociocultural perspective
    • social interaction, social learning, & cultural perspective
    • people influence each other
  32. developmental view
    • interaction between genes and experiences
    • how we develop
    • nature raises you
  33. trait view
    personalities ruled by body fluid
  34. Hippocrates
    trait view
  35. experimental psychologists
    conduct basic research
  36. basic research
    • get info about what you're studying
    • establish knowledge
  37. applied psychologists
    use knowledge & apply to field
  38. clinical psychologist
    help people evaluate & treat mental, emotional, & behavioral problems
  39. counseling psychologist
    help people adapt to changes in their lifestyle
  40. educational psychologist
    focus on curriculum & effective teaching
  41. school psychologist
    assess & counsel students, perform behavioral interventions
  42. developmental psychologist
    study people throughout life span
  43. human-factors psychologist
    explore how people & machines interact at home in the workplace to minimize frustration & maximize safety & productivity
  44. forensic psychologist
    apply psychological principles to legal issues

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