Lab values

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sashatom
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51529
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Lab values
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2010-11-27 22:17:41
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lab values
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Health Assessment Lab Values lecture
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  1. Normal sodium level?
    135-145
  2. Normal Cl level?
    98-106
  3. Normal BUN?
    10-20
  4. Normal K?
    3.5-5
  5. Normal CO2?
    23-30
  6. Normal Cr in females?
    0.5-1.1
  7. Normal Cr in males?
    0.6-1.2
  8. Normal Glucose?
    70-105
  9. Normal WBC count?
    5,000-10,000
  10. Normal Hgb in females?
    12-16
  11. Normal Hgb in males?
    14-18
  12. Normal Hct in females?
    37-47%
  13. Normal Hct in males?
    42-52%
  14. Normal platelets?
    150,000-400,000
  15. Normal (total) Ca?
    9.0-10.5
  16. Normal (ionized) Ca?
    4.5-5.6
  17. Normal Mg?
    1.3 – 2.1
  18. Normal PO4?
    3.0-4.5
  19. Normal APTT?
    30-40 seconds
  20. Normal PTT?
    11 – 12.5 seconds
  21. Normal INR?
    1.0
  22. Normal ALT?
    Below 40
  23. Normal AST?
    Below 40
  24. Normal Pre-albumin?
    20-40
  25. Target APTT for heparin infused patient?
    45-100 seconds
  26. Target INR for warfarin patient?
    1.5-3.0
  27. Normal ALP?
    30-120
  28. Normal LDH?
    100-190
  29. Normal NH3?
    10-80
  30. Normal amylase?
    60-120
  31. Normal Lipase?
    Below 160
  32. Normal pH of urine?
    4.6-8.0
  33. Normal specific gravity of urine?
    1.005 – 1.030
  34. Normal WBC in urine?
    0-4
  35. Normal RBC in urine?
    0-2
  36. Normal BAL?
    Below 80
  37. Normal BAC?
    Below 0.08%
  38. Serum Osmolarity?
    275-295
  39. Quick formula for Serum Osmolarity?
    Na X 2
  40. Detail formula for Serum Osmolarity?
    2(Na) + K + (BUN/3) + (Glucose/18)
  41. Normal Anion Gap
    8-16
  42. Anion Gap Formula
    Na – (Cl+CO2)
  43. M in MUDPILES
    Methanol
  44. U in MUDPILES
    Uremia
  45. D in MUDPILES
    DKA
  46. P in MUDPILES
    Paraldehyde
  47. I in MUDPILES
    Isoniazid/Iron
  48. L in MUDPILES
    Lactic Acidosis
  49. E in MUDPILES
    Ethylene Glycol
  50. S in MUDPILES
    Salicylates
  51. Factors that increase Anion Gap?
    MUDPILES
  52. Factors that decrease Anion Gap?
    • Hypercalcemia
    • Hypermagnesemia
    • Hyperkalemia
  53. What do neutrophils respond to?
    Bacterial infections
  54. What do eosinophils respond to?
    Allergy or parasite
  55. What do basophils respond to?
    Allergy
  56. What does an increase in bands represent?
    A “shift to the left”
  57. What could be the cause of a decreased H&H?
    Decreased blood count from hemorrhage, menses or anemic cause
  58. What could be the cause of an increased H&H?
    Dehydration and malnutrition
  59. What do MCV and MCH refer to?
    Size of an RBC
  60. What does MCHC refer to?
    Color of an RBC
  61. What is an RDW greater than 15 indicative of?
    Renal failure
  62. What is the result of increased MPV?
    More immature platelets
  63. What could be the cause of a decreased MPV?
    Decreased bone marrow production
  64. What does calcium have a direct relationship to?
    Parathyroid
  65. What does calcium have an inverse relationship with?
    PO4
  66. What can cause hypercalcemia?
    • Hyperthyroid
    • Addison’s / adrenal insufficiency
    • Too much Ca or Vit. D intake
    • Bone metastases
    • Immobility
    • Dehydration
    • Pagets
  67. Symptoms and effects of hypercalcemia?
    • Increase HR
    • 3+ pulses
    • Short ST segment
    • Hypophosphatemia
    • Decreased DTR
  68. What can cause hypocalcemia?
    • Renal failure
    • Hypoalbuminemia
    • Thyroid dysfunction
    • Vitamin D deficiency
    • Excessive loss of Ca (diarrhea/wounds)
  69. Symptoms and effects of hypocalcemia?
    • Decreased HR and contractility
    • Prolonged QT and ST interval
    • Increased DTR
    • Chvostek and Trousseau’s sign
    • Hyperphasphatemia
  70. What can lead to hypermagnesemia?
    • Antacids/laxatives
    • Addison’s (decreased aldosterone)
    • Decreased renal excretion
  71. What ECG changes are evident in hypermagnesemia?
    Wide QRS and increased PR interval
  72. Symptoms and effects of hypermagnesemia?
    • Hypotension
    • Bradycardia
    • Cardiac Arrest
    • Decreased DTR
  73. What can lead to hypomagnesemia?
    • Diruetics
    • DKA
    • Alcoholism
    • Crohn’s (insufficient intake/absorption)
    • Increased intracellular movement
  74. What can cause increased intracellular movement of ions?
    • Hyperglycemia
    • Sepsis
    • Alkalosis
    • Insulin
  75. Symptoms and effects of hypomagnesemia?
    • Tetany/Twitching
    • Increased DTR
    • Tachycardia
    • Arrhythmia
  76. Causes of hyperphosphatemia?
    • Hypoparathyroidism
    • Renal Failure
    • Bone metastases
    • Hypocalcemia
    • Rhabdomyolysis
    • Acidosis
    • Hemolytic anemia
  77. Causes of hypophosphatemia?
    • •Inadequate intake
    • •Hypercalcemia/Hyperparathyroidism
    • •Chronic acid indigestion/Antacids
    • •Diuretic use
    • •Chronic alcoholism
    • •Hyperinsulinemia
    • •Alkalosis
  78. Effects of hypophosphatemia?
    • Respiratory difficulty-spasm of diaphragm
    • Weakness/slurred speech
    • Decreased cardiac contractility
    • Decreased DTR
  79. What can elevated ALP indicate in the presence of normal other LFTs?
    Prostate cancer
  80. What LFTs are associated with pancreatitis?
    • LDH
    • Amylase
    • Lipase
  81. What is the treatment for too much ammonia?
    Lactalose
  82. Causes of hypernatremia?
    • Cushings
    • Renal failure
    • Hyperaldosterism
    • Diabetes
    • Diuresis
    • Burns
    • Diarrhea (fluid loss)
  83. Causes of hyponatremia?
    • Addison’s disease
    • Diuretics
    • Vomiting/diaphoresis
    • Wounds
    • SIADH (too much fluid)
    • HF/CHF – pulmonary edema
  84. Lethal symptoms of sodium imbalance?
    • Na level below 110
    • Neuro changes
    • Thirst
  85. Causes of hyperkalemia?
    • Renal failure
    • Salt substitutes
    • Medications (spironolactone, ACEI)
    • Burns
    • Acidosis
    • Adrenal insufficiency
  86. ECG changes in hyperkalemia?
    • Tall, peaked T-waves
    • Widened QRS
    • Flat P-wave
    • Abnormal rhythm/ectopic beats
  87. Treatment for hyperkalemia?
    • D50 + Insulin (IV)
    • Dialysis, diuretics (lasix)
    • Kayexelate
    • CaCl
    • Albuterol
  88. Causes of hypokalemia?
    • Fluid resuscitation after burns
    • GI loss
    • Diuretics
    • Secondary to renal artery stenosis
    • Hyperinsulinemia (OD)
  89. ECG changes in hypokalemia?
    • U wave (hallmark sign)
    • ST depression
    • Inverted T-wave
    • Abnormal rhythms
  90. What is equivalent to Serum CO2?
    Arterial HCO3
  91. What does increase CO2 cause?
    Metabolic alkalosis
  92. What does decreased CO2 cause?
    Metabolic acidosis
  93. What is target BUN:Creatinine ratio?
    15.5:1
  94. What does increase Cr indicate?
    Renal damage
  95. What does decreased Cr indicate?
    • Decreased muscle mass
    • Wasting syndrome
    • Starvation

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