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brain and spinal cord
nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord (outside of the CNS
Somatic nerve fibers that conduct impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles; under conscious control
Visceral motor nerve fibers that regulate the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands
identify the following structures on the neuron
- A. dendrites
- B. axon
- C. axon hillock
- D. myelin sheath
- E. node of ranvier
channels always open (ungated): do not respond to any signals
channels open when the appropriate chemical (neurotransmitted) binds
channels open and close in response to membrane potential (V changes).
label the following diagram, label presynaptic cell, postsynaptic cell, gated channels, synaptic cleft and synaptic vesicles.
- 1. presynaptic cell
- 2. synaptic vesicles
- 3. synaptic cleft
- 4. gated channels
- 5. postsynaptic cell
Briefly list and describe the five steps of producing an action potential
- STEP1: Resting state – all gated Na+ and K+ channels are closed
- STEP 2: Voltage-gated Na+
- channels open and Na+ enters the nerve cell
- STEP 3: Na+ channels are inactivated and K+ channels activate; K+ leaves the cell
- STEP 4: K+ channels remain open and Na+ channels reset
Define motor homunculus and list two examples of areas that are disproportionately large in the motor homunculus
- Motor homunculus: regions of neurons that control muscles in body areas having precise motor control.
- Example 1: Face
- Example 2: Hands
responsible for balance
controls muscles involved in speech production and plans speech and other motor activities
allows for awareness of odors
pleasure neurotransmitter involved with smooth motor movements; deficient in those afflicted with Parkinson’s disease
- inhibit pain (labor, athlete); morphine and heroin bind to
- endorphin receptors
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