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All worms making up the phylum platyhelminthes are known as?
Production of an ova within the parasite which hatch into larvae within the parasite, and pass into the host and out of the host as a larvae.
What are the differences between eggs and cysts?
- - Eggs are larger
- - Cysts have a thinner wall
- - Cysts are filled with fluid and are more fragile.
- - Ova are filled with cytoplasm, nucleus.
List the five larval stages of flukes in order.
- L1 - Miracidium
- L2 - Sporocyst
- L3 - Rediae
- L4 - Cercariae
- L5- Metacerariae (infective stage)
How many larval stages to tapeworms generally go through?
1 Larval Stage
What is the most common L1 infective stage of tapeworms?
A parasite that must live at the expense of another organism is known as an:
- Obligate parasite
- -Much more common- Lice are obligate and permanent but NOT stationary
- - Always have a final host if obligate parasite, not necessarily with facultative.
- -Most of the parasites are obligate.
What is an operculum and what kinds of eggs may it be seen on?
An indentation or protrusion on one or both ends of oval shaped eggs/ova.
What is the Taxonomic classifications in order?
What is a pseudoparasite and what are 3 examples.
- Something that looks like a parasite but isn't. Refers to the appearance seen upon microscopic examination.
- - Pollen
- - Plant material
- - Hair
Does a final host harbor a larval stage or an adult stage?
Harbors adult stage.
What kind of parasite attaches somewhere and stays there in the location on the host?
- Stationary Parasite
Parasites that live within the host are ____________________ and parasites living out the host are termed _______________.
- 1. Endoparasites
- 2. Ectoparasites
What is a permanent parasite?
A parasite that stays on the host all the time and wanders on the hosts body.
Do cestodes dwell in muscles, GI Tract, or the lungs?
Which flukes have PHS?
- Fasciola hepatica
- Rare, but occasional dermatitis or pneumonia.Nanophyetus salmincola
- Rare, but reported in Siberia (Fish Flu)
Do all flukes go through five larval stages?
What is the intermediate host of Dipylidium caninum?
What is the intermediate host of each of the flukes?
Is the rabbit the intermediate host for Taenia pisiformis?
What is the site of infestation of Taenia hydatigena?
- Dogs: Small intestines
- Ruminants: Viscera and Mesentery
The hexacanth embro will eventually become what part of the tapeworm?
What do eggs for Moniezia and Anoplocephala look like?
- 1. Square to Triangle Shaped
- 2. D shaped.
What is the difference between indirect and direct life cycles?
- Indirect is when a parasite needs an additional host to continue growth, and will end up as an adult in the final host.
- Parasite eaten by Rabbit. Rabbit eaten by Dog.
Direct is when a parasite does not need a host in between to fully mature.
What is Monecious
A parasite contains both sex organs and both are functional (one set of ovaries one set of testes)
The phylum Platyhelminthes is divided into what two classes?
The intermediate hosts for Echinococcus are the
- Sheep (granulosis)
- Rodents (multiocularis)
- Humans (both)
What part of the tapeworm must you get rid of to rid the host of the tapeworm?
The head and neck.
What is the intermediate host and final host for Anoplocephala?
- IH: Orbatid mite (grain mite)
- FH: Horse
What does gravid mean?
Do all parasites need at least one intermediate host?
Define pre-patent period?
From the time the animal gets the parasite to the time that we as technicians can see it in a test.
What's the other name for the transport host?
What is the difference in morphology between Trematodes and Cestodes?
- Trematodes are leaf shaped.
- Cestodes are segmented.
What is the geographic distribution of Echinococcus?
What organization should you call if you find Echinococcus?
Contacting the CDC and State Officials.
How is Fasciola hepatica diagnosed?
Ova in feces.
Does the intermediate host for Dipylidium caninum ingest infective eggs?
Is Dipylidium caninum HSS or HSP?
HSP for Dogs and Cats
Is Multiceps multiceps HSS or HSP?
HSS for Dogs
What is the host for Multiceps?
What is the pathogenesis of Anoplocephala?
Usually none, sometimes chronic diarrhea, intusseception, ulceration of the intestinal wall, and colic.
What is the pathogenesis for Paragonimus kellicotti?
Due to migration eosinophilic paratonitis myositis pleuritis, multifocal pleural hemorrhages. Intermittent coughing and dyspnea.
Why should you never report out a species of Taenia when finding Taenia?
Too complicated to figure out species since all Taenia ova look alike so just report with the family name. Diagnosing spp. may require and expert.
What are the three purposes of diagnostic parasitology?
On what part of the tapeworm is the oldest segment?
The very end proglottid.
Cestodes are commonly known as _________________ and Termatodes are commonly known as _______________.
What is the other name for a segment?
What do Cestode eggs look like?
- Egg baskets
What is the common name for Fasciola hepatica?
What is the common name for Nanophyetus salmincola?
Salmon Poisoning Fluke
What is the common name for Taenia taeniaeformis?
Cat Rat Tape
What parasite is known as the flea tapeworm?
What parasite is known as the lung fluke?
What is the difference between parasitiasis and parasitosis?
- Parasitiasis: Parasite present on host and is potentially pathogenic, but the animal exhibits no outward signs.
- Parasitosis: Parasite present on host and exhibits obvious outward signs and harm.
Fasciola hepatica is commonly known as the ______________
Define direct life cycle.
Parasite does not need the use of an intermediate host - but can use a paratenic
(Ectoparasite, Endoparasite) is synonymous for external parasite
Moniezia eggs are typically (triangular, D-Shaped), where as Anoplocephala are (triangle, D-Shaped)
- Moniezia - Triangular
- Anoplocephala - D-Shaped
Which group of Taxonomy has to deal with the parasites first name? The parasites second name? Which on is capitalized? Which one is not?
- 1. Genus
- 2. Species
- 3. Genus is capitalized
- 4. Species is all lower case.
The ________________ serves as the intermediate host for Dipylidium caninum.
_______________ _________________ is known as the Salmon Poisoning Fluke
What is the difference between ovoviviparous and viviparous?
- Ovoviviparous is production of ova within the parasite that pass into the host as ova, then hatch into larvae and pass out of the host as larvae.
- Viviparous is production of an ova within the parasite which hatch into larvae within the parasite, pass into the host and out of the host as larvae.
What is the difference between definitive host and paratenic host?
- Definitive is the final host.
- Paratenic is a transport host.
Define facultative parasite
- A free living generation that can live at the expense of another organism or can live on its own
What is an obligate parasite?
Is a parasite that must live as a parasite, and live at the expense of another organisim. Cannot survive on it's own.
An egg with double operculum is called (unipolar , bipolar). The operculum on a double operculated egg are always (indenting , protruding).
Which stage is infective for flukes?
Reproduction involving the passage of ova from the parasite out of the final host is called.
Do Echinococcus and Paragonimus have PHS? If so what are they?
- Echinococcus - Contact the CDC and state officials, humans must have hydatid cyst surgically remove.
- Paragonimus - None.
The head of the tapeworm is defined as?
The body of the tapeworm is termed
What is the tapeworm that is HSS for the horse?
Eggs that are round with radial striations are from what genus?
Egg baskets are diagnostic in identifying which parasite?
(Cestodes, Trematodes) are all GI Tract Dwellers
Motility is ____________
Morphology is ________________________
Study of shape.
Which end of the tapeworm contains mature segements?
The ones at the end.
A segment containing ova is termed a ____________.
How are parasites named?
- Geographical location.
- Final host
- Anatomical location
- Intermediate host
List the various concentration floatation solutions.
- Sodium nitrate -NaNO3 [Fecazol]
- Zinc sulfate - ZnSO4
- Seathers Sugar Solution (1.270 specific gravity)
What is the difference of the ova of Toxocara and Toxascaris?
- Toxocara - Outter ropey edge. Large, dark brown to black nucleus.
- Toxasceris - Inner ropey edge, Lighter color nucleas.
What is the PHS for Ancylostoma?
What do we report out if we see nothing on a fecal?
- NSATT -Nothing seen at this time
- NO/PSATT -No ova/parasites seen at this time
What do we report out if we see a parasite on a fecal?
The genus, or the genus and species of what is found.
What objective do we use to scan a fecal? To ID a parasite on a fecal? To see Giardia.
What are the 14 factors affecting fecal results?
- 1. Ova producing potentials.
- 2. Heavy infestations
- 3. Sex ratio
- 4. Large number of immature, worms
- 5. Diet of host
- 6. Egg output is not constant
- 7. Fecal consistancy
- 8. Fecal output
- 9. Immune responce
- 10. Technique used
- 11. Technician error
- 12. Luck
- 13. Amount of the sample used.
- 14. The age of the sample.
What is a blastomere and where is it seen?
- A blastomere is a chunk of cytoplasm that may or may not fill up the egg.
- Seen in TASE/Hookworms
What are routes of infestation for Toxocara canis?
- Direct ingestion with tracheal migration or symatic mirgation.
- Ineutero - transplacental after day 43.
- Ingestion of paratenic host
What are the general characteristics for hookworms?
- Anterior end is bent like a hook.
- Direct Life cycle
- Hooked head and round body
- Blood Feeders
- Skin Penetration
What is the pathogenesis of Ascaris suum?
Condemed organs due to destruction of tissue on migration route. Milk spots on liver and lungs. Hemorrhagic diarrhea, stunted growth, thumps.
What fecal technique is best to view Giardia?
Nematodes are commonly called?
Dog and Cat Hookworm is the _____________
The horse round worm is?