Antibiotics Part 1

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Antibiotics Part 1
2010-11-25 02:46:25
Pharmacology chapter

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  1. antibiotic
    having or pertaining to the ability to destroy or interfere with the development of a living organism
  2. Antiseptic
    One of the two types of topical antimicrobial agent; a chemical that inhibits the growth and reproduction of microorganisms without necessarily killing them.
  3. Bacteriostatic antibiotics
    antibiotics that do not actually kill bacteria but rather inhibit their growth
  4. beta-lactam
    the designation for a broad, major class of antibiotics that includes four subclasses: penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams; so named b/c of the beta-lactam ring that is part of the chemical structure of all drugs in ths class.
  5. beta-lactamase
    any of a group of enzymes produced by bacteria that catalyze the chemical opening of the crucial beta-lactam ring structures in beta-lactam antibiotics
  6. beta-lactmase inhibitors
    meds combined with certain penicillin drugs to block the effect of beta-lactmase enzymes
  7. colonization
    the establishment and growth of microorganisms on the skin, open wounds, or mucous membranes, or in secretions without causing adverse clinical signs and symptoms
  8. definitive therapy
    the administration of antibiotics based on known results of culture and sensitivity testing identifying the pathogens causing infections
  9. disinfectant
    one of two types of topical antimicrobial agent; a chemical applied to nonliving objects to kill microorganisms. also called cidal agents
  10. empiric therapy
    the administration of antibiotic based on the practitioners judgment of the pathogens most likely to be causing an apparent infection; it involves the presumptive treatment of an infection to avoid treatment delay before specific culture info has been obtained
  11. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
    an inherited disorder in which the red blood cels are partially or completely deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, a critical enzyme in the metabolism of glucose
  12. prophylactic antibiotic therapy
    antibiotics taken before anticipated exposure to an infectious organism in an effort to prevent the development of infections
  13. pseudomembranous colitis
    a necroinflammatory bowel condition that is often associated with antibiotic therapy. a more general term that is also used is antibiotic-associated colitis
  14. slow acetylation
    a common genetic host factor in which the rate of metabolism of vertain drugs is reduced
  15. subtherapeutic
    referring to antibiotic treatment that is ineffective in treatinf a given infection. possible causes include inapropriate drug therapy, insufficient drug dosing, and bacterial drug resistance
  16. teratogens
    substances that can interfere with normal prenatal development and cause one or more developmental abnormalities in the fetus
  17. sulfonamides
    • -sulfamethoxazole combined with trimethoprim commonly used (Bactrim)
    • -inhibit the growth of susceptible bacteria by preventing bacterial synthesis of folic acid