GenPsych CH11

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GenPsych CH11
2010-11-25 19:38:14

GenPsych Ch11 HW
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  1. Psychologist who study personality investigate w/c of following:
    the enduring traits and qualities we demonstrate over time.
  2. The strongest proponents of the human unconscious mind's role in personality are:
    psychodynamic theorist.
  3. Freud's concept of the ego is most likely referred to as the "executive of the personality" because:
    it must balance the need off the id, superego, and reality.
  4. Carolyn was reared in a home where high moral principles dominated. She had attended Sunday school and church since early childhood. In high school, her boyfriend talked her into "sleeping" w/ him. Which Freudian personality structure ruled Carolyn's behavior in this scenario?
  5. Cartoons sometimes depict personal conflict by showing an individual w/ an angel speaking into one ear and devil speaking into the other ear. The angel represents Freud's idea of the _____ and the devil represents Freud's idea of the _____.
    superego; id
  6. Jeff experiences a lot of aggressive feelings toward his overprotective stepfather. Because he is powerless to aggress openly against his stepfather, Jeff becomes a very aggressive forward on his basketball team. According to Freud, this is an example of:
  7. Darin had an automobile accident in w/c his brother and another passenger were killed. Though Darin wasn't seriously burt in the accident, he can't remember any of the accident details. Darin is engaging in w/c ego defense mechanism?
  8. Oberon has always been fascinated by fire, but he knows that it can be dangerous and sometimes lethal. When he finished high school, he decided to become a firefighter, and the job is extremely fulfilling for him. He gets to spend his day saving people from fires that might have hurt them or damaged their belongings, and even wins an award for being fearless in hazardous situations. Freud would probably say that Oberon's fascination w/ fire...
    ... has been sublimated into a socially desirable behavior.
  9. According to Horney, women really did not want to have a man's physiological feature; what they really wanted was:
    power and opportunities.
  10. Freud's view that gender difference in personality development are due to anatomical differences between males and females was criticized primarily for:
    ignoring cultural and environmental influences on personality development.
  11. After reading about Jung's analytical theory of personality development, Caroline suddenly realized why her sister, Carrie, seemed a different persona at social events than she did w/ her family. At home, Carrie was moody, self-centered and bossy. At social events, Carries was the life of the party. She was funny, happy and demonstrated social graces that none of her family ever saw at home. What is Jung's explanation of Carrie's behavior?
    Carrie adopted her persona at parties.
  12. Cailean has been reading a book on dream symbolism. The book's author states that certain dream images always mean certain things. For example, if Cailean were to dream that her teeth were falling out, that would mean that she was afraid of "losing face". Cailean wonders how it is possible for human to know the universal dream symbols until she learns about the ideas of:
    archetypes and the collective unconscious.
  13. Quesha recently started college, and her freshman orientation includes information on date rape and personal safety. Quesha realizes that she has few, if any, self-defense skills, so if she were attacked she would have no way to fight back. Determined to become more competent, she joins a martial arts club at her university. According to Adler,
    Quesha is striving to replace her feelings of inferiority w/ those of superiority.
  14. Which of the following people would most likely be considered a self-actualizer, according to Maslow?
    Lucy, who appreciates art, music, and philosophy.
  15. According to humanistic theory, a child who receives _____ from her parents is likely to avoid the problems associated with _____, w/c determine the circumstances under w/c people approve or disapprove of themselves.
    unconditional positive regards; conditions of worth.
  16. Bob thinks that he is a good tennis player and his results support his belief. He is better than almost all of the people in his tennis club and he wins most of his tennis matches. This agreement between Bob's beliefs and his actual experience would best be considered as an example of Carl Roger's concept of:
  17. Brittney is a counselor who believes that her clients have the innate ability to make good choices. She accepts each individual as they are an as a person in the process of change. It is important to her that her clients learn to evaluate themselves and not depend on the opinion of others. Brittney is practicing:
    humanistic counseling.
  18. A psychonalytic theorist who wants to criticize humanistic theories of personality but does NOT want to be critical of his own perspective would most likely point out which of the following?
    Humanistic theories rely too heavily on people's conscious reports of their experiences.
  19. Octavia enjoys being around others and is well-known for her social grace. She is warm and engaging with everyone she meets regardless of whether the setting is the classroom, her workplace, a restaurant, or her own home. Since Octavia has a fairly stable way of relating to other people, we can say that her behavior is probably:
    a manifestation of a personality trait.
  20. Octavia enjoys being around others and is well-known for her social grace. She is warm and engaging w/ everyone she meets regardless of whether the setting is the classroom, her workplace, a restaurant, or her own home. Based on this information and relying on the Five Factor Model, we can say that she would be MOST likely to score high in...
  21. Pablo enjoys work that involves finding a single "right" answer. He rarely sees any need to test an approach that works and is uncomfortable when asked to do something not already in his intellectual or emotional reportoires. He prefers simplicity in hi everyday life and doesn't understand why anyone would invest large amounts of time or money into art or music. To Pablo, neither of these serves any true purpose. Based on this information and relying on the Five Factor Model, we can say that Pablo would be most likely to score LOW in...
    ... openness.
  22. You are a member of a jury that has to decide whether Stanley, a repeat offender, should receive a longer, punitive prison sentence for once again beating up his girlfriend, Stella. Stanley's defense attorney argues that Stanley was a victim of a very dysfunctional childhood, and that he never learned to sublimate his anger. The prosecutor argues that Stanley is a habitual offender and should be "put away" for as long as possible. Which topic from you textbook chapter on personality is most relevant to the decision that you must make in this court case?
    Is personality permanently fixed in childhood?
  23. Your roommate hates listening to the news reports and refuses to read newspaper. He claims that people are getting worse and worse and that older people are just as irresponsible and mean as younger ones. Does the evidence support your roommate's position?
    No, longitudinal research studies on personality show that people at all ages are becoming progressively more agreeable.
  24. Susie is a typical extravert while her brother, Ed, is more of an introvert. Their mother, Marge, is worried that Ed isn't as emotionally happy and content as Susie and that he is socially anxious. As a psychology major familiar w/ the most recent research on this topic, you...
    ... disagree w/ Marge's assessment and argue that Ed is probably NOT unhappy, socially anxious, or distressed.
  25. You are a personality researcher and want to continue after the tradition of Henry Murray. This means you will be more interested in...
    ... personologies rather than traits.
  26. David learned a great deal from his older brother. His brother was a "whiner". This irritated their parents and did not get his brother what he wanted. His brother would pout and was sometimes disrespectful. David was able to use this information to become the "darling" of the family. He never whined, was always respectful, and accepted "no" w/o pouting. David's observations and applications are compatible with...
    ... the social cognitive approach to personality.
  27. _____ theories combine the behavioral and cognitive perspectives into an approach to personality that stresses the interaction of a thinking human with a social environment that provides learning experiences.
  28. DeShawn graduated from college with honors and approaches most aspect of life w/ the expectation that he will be successful. He expects a great deal of himself and sets his goals high. After his interview for a job in the most prestigious company in his state, he was convinced that he would get the job. You could say that he...
    ... has high self-efficacy.
  29. Walter Mischel's view of situationalism means that...
    ... personality varies considerable from one context to another.
  30. What do observational learning, personal control, and delay of gratification have in common?
    They all stress the importance of cognitive factors in determining behavior.
  31. Self-report personality measure are labeled that way because they...
    ... require the test-taker to respond to statements about himself or herself.
  32. Social desirability is:
    a major problem w/ self-report assessments.
  33. Amalia was very excited when she was called in for an interview for a teller position w/ the local bank. As a part of the interview process, she was required to take the MMPI. This surprised Amalia and she wonders why the bank would require her to take the test as a condition of employment. You are a psychology major. What do you tell Amalia about the MMPI's use in employment settings?
    The MMPI is used often by employers to select the best job candidates for a specific job.
  34. Dr. Crane is looking for a test that he can use to understand more about his client's unconscious motivations. He would be very likely to use a(n):
    projective measure.
  35. A client is asked to look at a picture and to tell a story that describes what she thinks is happening in the picture. Her therapist will use the content of the story to make inferences about the client's personality. The client is likely taking the...
    ...Thematic Apperception Test.
  36. A problem w/ projective tests is that...
    ... interpretation is subjective.
  37. How does a behavioral assessment of personality differ from projective and self-report measures?
    The behavioral assessment seeks to evaluate environmental influences on personality.
  38. Your friend, Hernandez, is a successful attorney. He wins most of his cases, but he has an aggressive courtroom demeanor and is reprimanded often by the court for his angry outbursts. Your friend Bobby is a mechanic, who smokes and drinks heavily. Bobby is 70 lbs overweight and loves fried foods. According to Bobby, "if it ain't fried, it ain't cooked!" Both men are in their early fifties. According to the textbook discussion on Type A/B personalities, w/c friend is most likely to have coronary heart problem?
    Hernandez is more likely to have coronary heart disease problems because of his anger.
  39. Marianne is an optimist. Bonnie Sue, her sorority sister, is a pessimist. Both women are in their early twenties. Twenty-five years from now,
    Marianne is more likely to be healthier than Bonnie Sue.
  40. In the Chicago Stress Project discussed in your textbook, managers who developed an illness were _____ than managers who remained healthy.
    less likely to have hardy personalities.
  41. Pessimism is to ______ as optimism is to _____.
    learned helplessness; self-efficacy.