· Short gestational period – immature young nourished in a marsupium (pouch)
Examples of Metatherians?
marsupials (pouch-bearing) [Koala, Tasmanian devil, Virginia opossum, kangaroo)
Examples of Therian mammals?
(marsupials and eutherians)
Examples of Prototherian mammals?
Duck-billed platypus, Echidna (spiny ant eater)
What are some characteristics of Prototherian mammals?
· Lack a placenta
· Have a cloaca
Therians (most) do what?
give birth to live young
Prototherians do what?
What are two major groups of mammals?
What is some characteristics of Mammals?
· Mammary glands that produce milk
· Hair or fur
· Sweat glands
· 4-chambered heart
· Teeth specialized for diverse diets
· Lungs with diaphragm for ventilation
· Internal fertilization
Examples of Neognath birds?
(Mandarin duck, Frigate bird, Barn owl, Brown thrasher, Flamingo, King penguin)
Examples of Paleognath birds?
(rhea, ostrich, emu, kiwi, cassowary)
Oldest known fossil is?
Birds are living representatives of what lineage?
· Feathers – allow flight; provide insulation
· Forelimbs modified as wings
· Light weight bones filled with air spaces
· Endothermic (maintain body temperature via metabolism)
· Lungs with air sacs – permit unidirectional flow of air through lungs
· Major agents of see dispersal
· Some exhibit elaborate courtship displays
What are some characteristics of Crocodilians?
· Carnivorous (eat vertebrates)
· Female guards eggs until hatching occurs
carnivorous; many inject venom into prey; some have vestigial pelvic and limb bones (Ringneck snake, Indian cobra, Beaked sea snake, Coral snake, Milk snake, Inland taipan)Black Mamba – Jaws can unhinge to consume large prey
most are insectivores, but some are herbivores or predators (Horned lizard, Gila monster, Mexican beaded lizard, Komodo dragon, Blue-tonged lizard)
lizard-like in appearance; native to New Zealand
tuataras and squamates (lizards and snakes)
What are the characteristics of Turtles?
· Dorsal and ventral bony plates form a shell
· Dorsal shell fused to ribs
· Aquatic (most) or terrestrial
· Omnivores (most)
Four groups of Reptiles are?
Crocodilians (crocodiles and alligators)
What are the characteristics of Reptiles?
· Body covered with keratin scales or feathers
· Respire via lungs
· 3-chambered heart with partially divided ventricle (all except crocodiles, alligators and birds à 4-chambered)
· Most are oviparous (leathery or calcium carbonate shell)
· Internal fertilization
· Amniote egg- allows embryo to develop in a contained aqueous environment
· Tough, impermeable skin (scales, feathers, hair, skin) – reduces water loss
· Kidneys modified to excrete concentrated urine (conserves water)
What is the characteristic of Apoda?
· Burrowing worm-like amphibians
Examples of Apoda?
Examples of Urdoela?
What are the characteristics of Anura?
· Hind legs modified for jumping
Examples of Anura are?
frogs and toads
Three orders of Amphibians are?
· Aquatic or terrestrial
· Larvae respire via gills
· Adults obtain most O2 via moist skin though they have lungs
· 3-chambered heart
· External fertilization (most)
· Oviparous (most)
· Most restricted to moist environments (skin and eggs lose water in dry air)