med term

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med term
2010-12-07 22:06:08
med term

chpt 11-14
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  1. acr/o
  2. adrenal/o
    adrenal glands
  3. adrenal/ectomy
    removal of the adrenal glands
  4. adrenal/itis
    inflammation of the adrenal gland
  5. adren/al
    pertaining to the adrenal gland
  6. adren/o
    adrenal gland
  7. adren/o/megaly
    enlargment of the adrenal glands
  8. adren/o/pathy
    disease of the adrenal glands
  9. andr/o
  10. calc/o
  11. hyper/calc/emia
    excessive calcium in blood
  12. hypo/calc/emia
    low calcium in blood
  13. crin/o
  14. endo/crin/o/logist
    specialist in the endocrine system
  15. endo/crin/o/pathy
    endocrine system disease
  16. estr/o
  17. glyc/o
  18. hyper/glyc/emia
    excessive suger in the blood
  19. hypo/glyc/emia
    low suger in the blood
  20. glycos/o
  21. gonad/o
    sex glands
  22. home/o
  23. kal/i
  24. hyper/kal/emai
    excessive potassium in the blood
  25. natr/o
  26. hypo/natr/emai
    low sodium in the blood
  27. ophthalm/o
  28. pancreat/o
  29. pancreat/ic
    pertaining to the pancreas
  30. parathyroid/o
    parathyroid gland
  31. parathyroid/al
    pertaining to the parathyroid gland
  32. parathyroid/ectomy
    removal of the parathyroid gland
  33. hyper/parathyroid//ism
    state of excessive parathyroid
  34. hypo/parathyroid/ism
    state of insufficiant parathyroid gland
  35. pineal/o
    pineal gland
  36. pituitar/o
    pituitary gland
  37. pituitar/ary
    pertaining to the pituitary gland
  38. hypo/pituitar/ism
    state of insufficant pituitary
  39. hyper/pituitar/ism
    state of excessive pituitary
  40. thym/o
    thymus gland
  41. thym/ic
    pertaining to the thymus
  42. thym/ectomy
    removal of the thymus
  43. thym/itis
    thymus inflammation
  44. thym/oma
    cancer of the thymus
  45. thyr/o
    thyroid gland
  46. thyr/o/megaly
    enlarged thyroid
  47. thyroid/o
    thryroid gland
  48. thyroid/al
    pertaining to thyroid
  49. thyroid/ectomy
    removal of the thyroid
  50. hyper/thyroid/ism
    state of excessive thyroid
  51. hypo/thyroid/ism
    state of insufficient thyroid
  52. toxic/o
  53. -crine
    to secrete
  54. -dipsia
  55. poly/dipsia
  56. -prandial
    relating to a meal
  57. -tropin
  58. -uria
  59. poly/uria
    condition of (too) much urine
  60. glycos/uria
    Presence of an excess of sugar in the urine.
  61. acidosis
    Excessive acidity of body fluids due to the accumulation of acids, as in diabetic acidosis.
  62. acromegaly
    Chronic disease of adults that results in an elongation and enlargement of the bones of the head and extremities. There can also be mood changes.
  63. Addison's disease
    Disease named for Thomas Addison, a British physician, that results from a deficiency in adrenocortical hormones. There may be an increased pigmentation of the skin, generalized weakness, and weight loss.
  64. adenocarcinoma
    Malignant adenoma in a glandular organ.
  65. adrenal cortex
    The outer portion of the adrenal glands; secretes several families of hormones: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and steroid sex hormones.
  66. adrenal feminization
    Development of female secondary sexual characteristics (such as breasts) in a male; often as a result of increased estrogen secretion by the adrenal cortex.
  67. adrenal gland
    A pair of glands in the endocrine system located just above each kidney. This glands is composed of two sections, the cortex and the medulla, that function independently of each other. The cortex secretes steroids, such as aldosterone, cortisol, androgens, estrogens, and progestins. The medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. The adrenal glands are regulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone, which is secreted by the pituitary gland.
  68. adrenal medulla
    The inner portion of the adrenal gland. It secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  69. adrenal virilism
    Development of male secondary sexual characteristics (such as deeper voice and facial hair) in a female; often as a result of increased androgen secretion by the adrenal cortex.
  70. adrenaline
    A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla. Also known as epinephrine. Some of its actions include increasing heart rate and force of contraction, bronchodilation, and relaxation of intestinal muscles.
  71. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    A hormone secreted by anterior pituitary. It regulates function of the adrenal gland cortex.
  72. ACTH
    adrenocorticotropic hormone
  73. aldosterone
    A hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. It regulates the levels of sodium and potassium in the body and as a side effect the volume of water lost in urine.
  74. androgen
    A class of steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. These hormones, such as testosterone, produce a masculinizing effect.
  75. anterior lobe
    The anterior portion of the pituitary gland. It secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone.
  76. ADH
    antidiuretic hormone
  77. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    A hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary. It promotes water reabsorption by the kidney tubules.
  78. antithyroid agents
    Medication given to block production of thyroid hormones in patients with hypersecretion disorders.
  79. blood serum test
    Blood test to measure the level of substances such as calcium, electrolytes, testosterone, insulin, and glucose. Used to assist in determining the function of various endocrine glands.
  80. calcitonin
    A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. It stimulates deposition of calcium into bone.
  81. calcium
    An inorganic substance found in plasma. It is important for bones, muscles, and nerves.
  82. chemical thyroidectomy
    Large dose of radioactive iodine is given in order to kill thyroid gland cells without having to actually do surgery.
  83. circadian rhythm
    The 24-hour clock that governs our periods of wakefulness and sleepiness.
  84. corticosteroids
    General term for the group of hormones secreted by the adrenal contex. They include mineralocorticoid hormones, glucocorticoid hormones, and steroid sex hormones.
  85. cortisol
    A steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. It regulates carbohydrate metabolism.
  86. cretinism
    Congenital condition due to a lack of thyroid that may result in arrested physical and mental development.
  87. Cushing's syndrome
    Set of symptoms named after Harvey Cushing, an American neurosurgeon that result from hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex. This may be the result of a tumor of the adrenal glands. The syndrome may present symptoms of weakness, edema, excess hair growth, skin discoloration, and osteoporosis.
  88. diabetes insipidus (DI)
    Disorder caused by the inadequate secretion of a hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. There may be polyuria and polydipsia. This is more common in the young.
  89. diabetes mellitus
    A series disease in which the pancreas fails to produce insulin or the insulin does not work properly. Consequently, the patient has very high blood sugar. The kidney will attempt to lower the high blood sugar level by excreting excess sugar in the urine.
  90. diabetic retinopathy
    Secondary complication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels of the retina, resulting in visual changes and even blindness.
  91. dwarfism
    Condition of being abnormally small. It may be the result of a hereditary condition or an endocrine dysfunction.
  92. edema
    Condition in which the body tissues contain excessive amounts of fluid.
  93. endocrine glands
    A glandular system that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream rather than into a duct. Endocrine glands are frequently referred to as ductless glands. The endocrine system includes the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, parathyroid glands, pituitary gland, pancreas (islets of Langerhans), testes, ovaries, and thymus gland.
  94. endocrine system
    The body system that consists of glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream. The endocrine glands include the adrenal glands, parathyroid glands, pancreas, pituitary gland, testes, ovaries, thymus gland, and thyroid gland.
  95. endocrinology
    The branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the endocrine system.
  96. epinephrine
    A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla. Also known as adrenaline. Some of its actions include increased heart rate and force of contraction, bronchodilation, and relaxation of intestinal muscles.
  97. estrogen
    One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with progesterone to control the menstrual cycle and it is responsible for producing the secondary sexual characteristics.
  98. exocrine glands
    Glands that secrete substances into a duct. Tears and tear ducts are examples of an exocrine gland.
  99. exophthalmos
    Condition in which the eyeballs protrude, such as in Graves' disease. This is generally caused by an overproduction of thyroid hormone.
  100. fasting blood sugar (FBS)
    Blood test to measure the amount of sugar circulating throughout the body after a 12-hour fast.
  101. FBS
    fasting blood sugar
  102. gametes
    The reproductive sex cells-ova and sperm.
  103. gigantism
    Excessive development of the body due to the overproduction of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland. The opposite of dwarfism.
  104. glands
    The organs of the body that release secretions. Exocrine glands, like sweat glands, release their secretions into ducts. Endocrine glands, such as the thyroid gland, release their hormones directly into the blood stream.
  105. glucagon
    A hormone secreted by pancreas. It stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood.
  106. glucocorticoids
    A group of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. They regulate carbohydrate levels in the body. Cortisol is an example of a glucocorticoid.
  107. glucose tolerance test (GTT)
    Test to determine the blood sugar level. A measured dose of glucose is given to a patient either orally or intravenously. Blood samples are then drawn at certain intervals to determine the ability of the patient to utilize glucose. Used for diabetic patients to determine their insulin response to glucose.
  108. GTT
    glucose tolerance test
  109. goiter
    Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
  110. gonadotropins
    Common name for follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
  111. gonads
    The organs responsible for producing sex cells. The female gonads are the ovaries and they produce ova. The male gonads are the testes and they produce sperm.
  112. Graves' disease
    Condition, named for Robert Graves, an Irish physician, that results in overactivity of the thyroid gland and can result in a crisis situation. Also called hyperthyroidism.
  113. growth hormone (GH)
    A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates growth of the body.
  114. GH
    growth hormone
  115. gynecomastia
    The development of breast tissue in males; may be a symptom of adrenal feminization.
  116. Hashimoto’s disease
    Chronic form of thyroiditis, named for a Japanese surgeon.
  117. hirsutism
    Excessive hair growth over the body
  118. homeostasis
    Steady state or state of balance within the body. The kidneys assist in maintaining this regulatory, steady state.
  119. hormone
    A chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland. It enters the blood stream and is carried to target tissue. Hormones work to control the functioning of the target tissue. Given to replace the loss of natural hormones or to treat disease by stimulating hormonal effects.
  120. hormone replacement therapy
    Menopause or the surgical loss of the ovaries results in the lack of estrogen production; replacing this estrogen with an oral medication prevents some of the consequences of menopause, especially in younger women who have surgically lost their ovaries.
  121. human growth hormone therapy
    Therapy with human growth hormone in order to stimulate skeletal growth; used to treat children with abnormally short stature.
  122. hypersecretion
    Excessive hormone production by an endocrine gland.
  123. hyposecretion
    Deficient hormone production by an endocrine gland.
  124. hypothalamus
    The hypothalamus is a portion of the diencephalon that lies just below the thalamus. It controls body temperature, appetite, sleep, sexual desire, and emotions such as fear. It also regulates the release of hormones from the pituitary gland and regulates the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
  125. insulin
    The hormone secreted by the pancreas. It regulates the level of sugar in the blood stream. The more insulin present in the blood, the lower the blood sugar will be.
  126. insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
    Also called type 1 diabetes mellitus; it develops early in life when the pancreas stops insulin production. Persons with IDDM must take daily insulin injections.
  127. insulinoma
    Tumor of the islets of Langerhans cells of the pancreas that secretes an excessive amount of insulin.
  128. iodine
    A mineral required by the thyroid to produce its hormones.
  129. islets of Langerhans
    The regions within the pancreas that secrete insulin and glucagon.
  130. ketoacidosis
    Acidosis due to an excess of ketone bodies (waste products). A serious condition that requires immediate treatment and can result in death for the diabetic patient if not reversed.
  131. laparoscopic adrenalectomy
    Excision of the adrenal gland through a small incision in the abdomen and using endoscopic instruments.
  132. lobectomy
    Surgical removal of a lobe of the lung. Often the treatment of choice for lung cancer.
  133. luteinizing hormone
    A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. It regulates function of male and female gonads and plays a role in releasing ova in females.
  134. melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. It stimulates pigment production in the skin.
  135. melatonin
    Hormone secreted by the pineal gland; plays a role in regulating the body's circadian rhythm.
  136. menstrual cycle
    The 28-day fertility cycle in women; includes ovulation and sloughing off the endometrium if a pregnancy does not occur.
  137. mineralocorticoids
    A group of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. They regulate electrolytes and fluid volume in the body. Aldosterone is an example of a mineralocorticoid.
  138. myxedema
    Condition resulting from a hypofunction of the thyroid gland. Symptoms can include anemia, slow speech, enlarged tongue and facial features, edematous skin, drowsiness, and mental apathy.
  139. non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    Also called type 2 diabetes mellitus. It develops later in life when the pancreas produces insufficient insulin; persons may take oral hypoglycemics to stimulate insulin secretion, or may eventually have to take insulin.
  140. norepinephrine
    A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla. It is a strong vasoconstrictor.
  141. obesity
    Having an abnormal amount of fat in the body.
  142. oral hypoglycemic agent
    Medication taken by mouth that causes a decrease in blood sugar. This is not used for insulin-dependent patients. There is no proof that this medication will prevent the long-term complications of diabetes mellitus.
  143. ova
    The female sex cell or gamete produced in the ovary. An ovum fuses with a sperm to produce an embryo. Singular is ovum
  144. ovaries
    The female gonads. These two glands are located on either side of the lower abdominopelvic region of the female. They are responsible for the production of the sex cells, ova, and the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
  145. oxytocin
    A hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary. It stimulates uterine contractions during labor and delivery.
  146. pancreas
    Organ in the digestive system that produces digestive enzymes. Also a gland in the endocrine system that produces two hormones, insulin and glucagon
  147. panhypopituitarinism
    Deficiency in all the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland; often recognized because of problems with the glands regulated by the pituitary-adrenal cortex, thyroid, ovaries, and testes.
  148. parathyroid glands
    Four small glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland. The parathyroid hormone secreted by these glands regulates the amount of calcium in the blood.
  149. parathyroid hormone
    The hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands. The more hormone, the higher the calcium level in the blood and the lower the level stored in bone. A low hormone level will cause tetany.
  150. peripheral neuropathy
    Damage to the nerves in the lower legs and hands as a result of diabetes mellitus; symptoms include either extreme sensitivity or numbness and tingling.
  151. pheochromocytoma
    Usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine; symptoms include anxiety, heart palpitations, dyspnea, profuse sweating, headache, and nausea.
  152. pineal gland
    A gland in the endocrine system that produces a hormone called melatonin.
  153. pituitary gland
    An endocrine gland located behind the optic nerve in the brain. It is also called the master gland since it controls the functions of many other endocrine glands. It is divided into two lobes: anterior and posterior. The anterior pituitary gland secretes hormones that aid in controlling growth and stimulating the thyroid gland, sexual glands, and adrenal cortex. The posterior pituitary is responsible for the antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin.
  154. posterior lobe
    The posterior portion of the pituitary gland. It secretes antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin.
  155. progesterone
    One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with estrogen to control the menstrual cycle
  156. prolactin
    A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. It stimulates mild production.
  157. protein-bound iodine test (PBI)
    Blood test to measure the concentration of thyroxine (T4) circulating in the bloodstream. The iodine becomes bound to the protein in the blood and can be measured. Useful in establishing thyroid function.
  158. PBI
    protein-bound iodine test
  159. radioimmunoassay (RIA)
    Test used to measure the levels of hormones in the plasma of the blood.
  160. RIA
  161. serum glucose tests
    Blood test performed to assist in determining insulin levels and useful for adjusting medication dosage.
  162. somatotropin
    Another name for growth hormone; a hormone that promotes growth of the body by stimulating cells to rapidly increase in size and divide.
  163. sperm
    Also called spermatozoon (plural is spermatozoa). The male sex cell. One sperm fuses with the ova to produce a new being.
  164. steroid sex hormones
    A class of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. It includes aldosterone, cortisol, androgens, estrogens, and progestins.
  165. syndrome
    Group of symptoms and signs that when combined present a clinical picture of a disease or condition.
  166. T cells
    A lymphocyte active in cellular immunity.
  167. target organs
    The organs that hormones act on to either increase or decrease the organ's activity level.
  168. testes
    The male gonads. The testes are oval glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and the male hormone, testosterone.
  169. testosterone
    Male hormone produced in the testes. It is responsible for the growth and development of the male reproductive organs.
  170. tetany
    A condition the results from a calcium deficiency in the blood. It is characterized by muscle twitches, cramps, and spasms.
  171. thalamus
    The thalamus is a portion of the diencephalon. It is composed of gray matter and acts as a center for relaying impulses from the eyes, ears, and skin to the cerebrum. Pain perception is also controlled by the thalamus.
  172. thymosin
    Hormone secreted by thymus gland. It causes lymphocytes to change into T-lymphocytes.
  173. thymus gland
    An endocrine gland located in the upper mediastinum that assists the body with the immune function and the development of antibodies. As part of the immune response it secretes a hormone, thymosin, that changes lymphocytes to T cells.
  174. thyroid echogram
    Ultrasound examination of the thyroid that can assist in distinguishing a thyroid nodule from a cyst.
  175. thyroid function tests (TFT)
    Blood tests used to measure the levels of T3, T4, and TSH in the bloodstream to assist in determining thyroid function.
  176. TFT
    thyroid function tests
  177. thyroid gland
    This endocrine gland is located on either side of the trachea. Its shape resembles a butterfly with a large left and right lobe connected by a narrow isthmus. This gland produces the hormones thyroxine (also known as T4) and triiodothyronine (also known as T3).
  178. thyroid replacement hormone
    Given to replace thyroid in patients with hypothyroidism or who have had a thyroidectomy.
  179. thyroid scan
    Test in which a radioactive element is administered that localizes in the thyroid gland. The gland can then be visualized with a scanning device to detect pathology such as tumors.
  180. thyroid-stimulating hormone
    A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. It regulates function of the thyroid gland.
  181. thyrotoxicosis
    Condition that results from overproduction of the thyroid glands. Symptoms include a rapid heart action, tremors, enlarged thyroid gland, exophthalmos, and weight loss.
  182. thyroxine (T4)
    A hormone produced by the thyroid gland. It is also known as T4 and requires iodine for its production. This hormone regulates the level of cell metabolism. The greater the level of hormone in the bloodstream, the higher cell metabolism will be.
  183. T4
  184. total calcium
    Blood test to measure the total amount of calcium to assist in detecting parathyroid and bone disorders.
  185. triiodothyronine (T3)
    A hormone produced by the thyroid gland known as T3 that requires iodine for its production. This hormone regulates the level of cell metabolism. The greater the level of hormone in the blood stream, the higher cell metabolism will be.
  186. T3
  187. two-hour postprandial (glucose tolerance test)
    Blood test to assist in evaluating glucose metabolism. The patient eats a high-carbohydrate diet and fasts overnight before the test. A blood sample is then taken 2 hours after a meal.
  188. glucose tolerance test
    two-hour postprandial
  189. vasopressin
    Given to control diabetes insipidus and promote reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules.
  190. von Recklinghausen's disease
    Excessive production of parathyroid hormone, which results in degeneration of the bones. Named for Friedrich von Recklinghausen, a German histologist.
  191. absence seizure
    Type of epileptic seizure that lasts only a few seconds to half a minute, characterized by a loss of awareness and an absence of activity. It is also called a petit mal seizure.
  192. afferent neurons
    Nerve that carries impulses to the brain and spinal cord from the skin and sense organs. Also called sensory neurons.
  193. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    Disease with muscular weakness and atrophy due to degeneration of motor neurons of the spinal cord. Also called Lou Gehrig's disease, after the New York Yankees' baseball player who died from the disease.
  194. ALS
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  195. analgesia
    A reduction in the perception of pain or sensation due to a neurological condition or medication.
  196. analgesic
    Relieves pain without the loss of consciousness. May be either narcotic or non-narcotic. Narcotic drugs are derived from the opium poppy and act on the brain to cause pain relief and drowsiness.
  197. anesthetic
    Produces a lack of feeling that may be of local or general effect, depending on the type of administration.
  198. anticholinergic
    Blocks the function of the parasympathetic nervous system. Used to treat intestinal, bladder, and bronchial spasms.
  199. aphasia
    Inability to communicate through speech. Often an aftereffect of a stroke (CVA).
  200. CVA
    Inability to communicate through speech. Often an aftereffect of a stroke
  201. arachnoid layer
    The delicate middle layer of the meninges.
  202. ascending tracts
    Nerve tracts carrying sensory information up the spinal cord to the brain.
  203. astrocytoma
    Tumor of the brain or spinal cord that is composed of astrocytes.
  204. ataxia
    Having a lack of muscle coordination as a result of a disorder or disease.
  205. aura
    Sensations, such as seeing colors or smelling an unusual odor, that occur just prior to an epileptic seizure.
  206. autonomic nervous system
    The portion of the nervous system that consists of nerves to the internal organs that function involuntarily. It regulates the functions of glands (especially the salivary, gastric, and sweat glands), the adrenal medulla, heart, and smooth muscle tissue. This system is divided into two parts: sympathetic and parasympathetic.
  207. axon
    Single projection of a neuron that conducts impulse away from nerve cell body.
  208. Babinski Reflex
    Reflex test to determine lesions and abnormalities in the nervous system. The Babinski reflex is present if the great toe extends instead of flexes when the lateral sole of the foot is stroked. The normal response to this stimulation would be a flexion, or upward movement, of the toe.
  209. Bell's palsy (facial paralysis)
    One-sided facial paralysis with an unknown cause. The person cannot control salivation, tearing of the eyes, or expression. The patient will eventually recover.
  210. brain
    The brain is one of the largest organs in the body and coordinates most body activities. It is the center for all thought, memory, judgment, and emotion. Each part of the brain is responsible for controlling different body functions, such as temperature regulation and breathing. The four sections to the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, and brain stem.
  211. brain scan
    Injection of radioactive isotopes into the circulation to determine the function and abnormality of the brain.
  212. brain stem
    This area of the brain has three components: medulla oblongata, pons, and the midbrain. The brain stem is a pathway for impulses to be conducted between the brain and the spinal cord. It also contains the centers that control respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure. In addition, the twelve pairs of cranial nerves begin in the brain stem.
  213. brain tumor
    Intracranial mass, either benign or malignant. A benign tumor of the brain can be fatal since it will grow and cause pressure on normal brain tissue. The most malignant brain tumors in children are gliomas.
  214. carotid endarterectomy
    Surgical procedure for removing an obstruction within the carotid artery, a major artery in the neck that carries oxygenated blood to the brain. Developed to prevent strokes but found to be useful only in severe stenosis with TIA.
  215. central canal
    Canal that extends down the length of the spinal cord; contains cerebrospinal fluid.
  216. central nervous system
    The portion of the nervous system that consist of the brain and spinal cord. It receives impulses from all over the body, processes this information, and then responds with an action. It consists of both gray matter and white matter.
  217. cephalgia
    A headache.
  218. cerebellum
    The second largest portion of the brain, it is located beneath the posterior portion of the cerebrum. This part of the brain aids in coordinating voluntary body movements and maintaining balance and equilibrium. It is attached to be the brain stem by the pons. The cerebellum refines the muscular movement that is initiated in the cerebrum.
  219. cerebral aneurysm
    Localized abnormal dilatation of a blood vessel, usually an artery; the result of a congenital defect or weakness in the wall of the vessel; a ruptured aneurysm is a common cause for a hemorrhagic CVA.
  220. cerebral angiography
    X-ray of the blood vessels of the brain after the injection of a radiopaque dye.
  221. cerebral contusion
    Bruising of the brain from a blow or impact; symptoms last longer than 24 hours and include unconsciousness, dizziness, vomiting, unequal pupil size, and shock.
  222. cerebral cortex
    The outer layer of the cerebrum. It is composed of folds of gray matter called gyri, which are separated by sulci.
  223. cerebral hemispheres
    The division of the cerebrum into right and left halves.
  224. cerebrospinal fluid
    Watery clear fluid found in the ventricles of the brain. It provides protection from shock or sudden motion to the brain.
  225. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis
    Laboratory examination of the clear, watery, colorless fluid from within the brain and spinal cord. Infections and the abnormal presence of blood can be detected in this test.
  226. cerebrospinal fluid shunts
    A surgical procedure in which a bypass is created to drain cerebrospinal fluid. It is used to treat hydrocephalus by draining the excess cerebrospinal fluid from the brain and diverting it to the abdominal cavity.
  227. cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
    Also called a stroke. The development of an infarct due to loss in the blood supply to an area of the brain. Blood flow can interrupted by a ruptured blood vessel (hemorrhage), a floating clot (embolus), a stationary clot (thrombosis), or compression. The extent of damage depends on the size and location of the infarct and often includes speech problems and muscles paralysis.
  228. cerebrum
    The largest section of the brain. It is located in the upper portion and is the area that possesses our thoughts, judgment, memory, and association skills, and the ability to discriminate between items. The outer layer of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex, which is composed of folds of gray matter. The elevated portions of the cerebrum, or convolutions, are called gyn and are separated by fissures or sulci. The cerebrum has both a left and right division or hemisphere. Each hemisphere has four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal.
  229. cranial nerves (12)
    Nerves that arise from the brain.
  230. cryosurgery
    Exposing tissues to extreme cold in order to destroy them. Used in treating malignant tumors, and to control pain and bleeding.
  231. delirium
    State of mental confusion with a lack of orientation to time and place.
  232. dendrite
    Branched process off a neuron that receive impulses and carry it to the cell body.
  233. descending tracts
    Nerve tracts carrying motor signals down he spinal cord to the muscles.
  234. dopaminergic drugs
    Group of medications to treat Parkinson's disease by either replacing the dopamine that is lacking or increasing the strength of the dopamine that is present.
  235. dura mater
    The term means tough mother. It is the fibrous outermost meninges layer that forms a tough protective layer.
  236. echoencephalography
    Recording of the ultrasonic echoes of the brain; useful in determining abnormal patterns of shifting in the brain.
  237. efferent neurons
    Nerves that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands. Also called motor neurons.
  238. electroencephalogram
    A record of the brain's electrical activity.