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a homeostatic system is the midpoint of balance to which the system is designed to return. (see also homeostasis). Homeostasis is common to body systems in living creatures
Jungian Personality Theory
Extroverts vs. Introverts Extroverts are directed towards the objective world whereas Introverts are directed towards the subjective world. The most common differences between Extroverts and Introverts are shown below:
- are interested in what is happening around them
- are open and often talkative
- compare their own opinions with the opinions of others
- like action and initiative
- easily make new friends or adapt to a new group
- say what they think
- are interested in new people
- easily break unwanted relations
- are interested in their own thoughts and feelings
- need to have own territory
- often appear reserved, quiet and thoughtful
- usually do not have many friends
- have difficulties in making new contacts
- like concentration and quiet
- do not like unexpected visits and therefore do not make them
- work well alone Sensing vs. Intuition Sensing is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its physical qualities and its affection by other information. Intuition is an ability to deal with the information on the basis of its hidden potential and its possible existence. The most common differences between Sensing and Intuitive types are shown below:
- see everyone and sense everything
- live in the here and now
- quickly adapt to any situation
- like pleasures based on physical sensation
- are practical and active
- are realistic and self-confident
- Intuitive types
- are mostly in the past or in the future
- worry about the future more than the present
- are interested in everything new and unusual
- do not like routine
- are attracted more to the theory than the practice
- often have doubts Thinking vs. Feeling Thinking is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its structure and its function. Feeling is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its initial energetic condition and its interactions. The most common differences between Thinking and Feeling type are shown below:
- are interested in systems, structures, patterns
- expose everything to logical analysis
- are relatively cold and unemotional
- evaluate things by intellect and right or wrong
- have difficulties talking about feelings
- do not like to clear up arguments or quarrels
- Feeling types
- are interested in people and their feelings
- easily pass their own moods to others
- pay great attention to love and passion
- evaluate things by ethics and good or bad
- can be touchy or use emotional manipulation
- often give compliments to please people Perceiving vs. Judging Perceiving types are motivated into activity by the changes in a situation. Judging types are motivated into activity by their decisions resulting from the changes in a situation. The most common differences between Perceiving and Judging types are shown below:
- act impulsively following the situation
- can start many things at once without finishing them properly
- prefer to have freedom from obligations
- are curious and like a fresh look at things
- work productivity depends on their mood
- often act without any preparation
- Judging types
- do not like to leave unanswered questions
- plan work ahead and tend to finish it
- do not like to change their decisions
- have relatively stable workability
- easily follow rules and discipline
Freud believed that one of the central factors in the development of personality was the libido, or the sexual drive
- anal stage
- phallic stage-genitals, oedipus complex
- latency stage-sex drive awakened
types of anxiety the lead to defense mechanisms
- Reality Anxiety
- This is the most basic form of anxiety and is typically based on fears of real and possible events, such as being bitten by a dog or falling from a ladder.
- The most common way of reducing tension from Reality Anxiety is taking oneself away from the situation, running away from the dog or simply refusing to go up the ladder.
- Neurotic Anxiety
- This is a form of anxiety which comes from an unconscious fear that the basic impulses of the ID (the primitive part of our personality) will take control of the person, leading to eventual punishment (this is thus a form of Moral Anxiety).
- Moral Anxiety
- This form of anxiety comes from a fear of violating values and moral codes, and appears as feelings of guilt or shame.
- Denial: claiming/believing that what is true to be actually false.
- Displacement: redirecting emotions to a substitute target.
- Intellectualization: taking an objective viewpoint.
- Projection: attributing uncomfortable feelings to others.
- Rationalization: creating false but credible justifications.
- Reaction Formation: overacting in the opposite way to the fear.
- Regression: going back to acting as a child.
- Repression: pushing uncomfortable thoughts into the subconscious.
- Sublimation: redirecting 'wrong' urges into socially acceptable actions.
The central concept in Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization. He proposed that human desires are innately given and exist in an ascending hierarchy.
The feelings, thoughts, and behaviors associated with not achieving a particular goal or the belief that a goal has been prematurely interrupted.
Cognitive Personality Theory
psychology looks at the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior
A natural instinctive state of mind deriving from one's circumstances, mood, or relationships with others
Conflict is actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests
- Aproach-approach conflict: a choice must be made between two attractive goals. The problem is that you can choose just one of the two goals
- Avoidance-aviodance conflict: a choice must be made between two unattractive goals. ("caught between a rock and a hard place")
- Approach-avoidance conflict: a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects.
Two-factor theory of emotions
suggesting that human emotion has two components (factors): physiological arousal and cognition
The attribution of human characteristics or behavior to a god, animal, or object
Body mass index
a number that shows body weight adjusted for height
Behaviorist Personality Theory
Behavioral theories suggest that personality is a result of interaction between the individual and the environment.