dmrn105e

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Author:
blkbunny20
ID:
51852
Filename:
dmrn105e
Updated:
2010-11-27 12:45:03
Tags:
Cancer development
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Description:
medical surgical
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  1. Features of normal cells
    • Apoptosis
    • Specific morphology
    • Tight adherence
    • Diploid (euploid)
    • Contact inhibition
    • Nonmigratory
    • Differiented function
    • Small nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio
  2. Features of embryonic cells
    • Rapid and continuous cell division
    • Anaplasia
    • Large nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio
    • Pluripotency
    • Loose adherence
    • Migration
    • No contact inhibition
    • Normal chromosomes
  3. Features of Benign tumor cells
    • Continous or inappropriate cell growth
    • Specific morphology
    • Small nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio
    • Differentiated function
    • Tight adherence
    • No migration
    • orderly growth
    • normal chromosomes
  4. Features of cancer cells
    (malignant)
    • Rapid continuous growth
    • Anaplasia
    • Large nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio
    • Loose adherence
    • Migration
    • No contact inhibition
    • Abnormal chromosomes
  5. Malignant transformation occurs through which steps
    • Initiation
    • Promotion
    • Progression
    • Metastasis
  6. Initiation
    • 1st step in carcinogenesis
    • Is an irreversible change that can lead to cancer development
  7. Promotion
    the enhancement of growth of an initiated cell
  8. Promoters
    Substances that promote or enhance growth of intiated cells
  9. Latency period
    • Time between a cells initiation and the development of an overt tumor
    • Promoters shorten the latency period
  10. Progression
    • The continued change of a cancer making it more malignant over time
    • Tumor must develop its own blood supply first
  11. primary tumor
    The original tumor
  12. Secondary tumor
    Additional tumors that came from primary or original tumor
  13. Steps to Metastasis
    • Extendion into surrounding tissues
    • Blood vessel penetration
    • Release of tumor cell
    • Invasion
    • Local seeding
    • Blood-borne metastisis
    • Lymphatic spread
  14. Primary brain cancer can metastasis where
    Only the CNS
  15. Cancer Classificiation
    • Grading
    • Ploidy
    • Staging
    • TNM
    • Doubling time and mitotic index
  16. Grading of malignant tumor
    • GX - cannot be graded
    • G1- tumor well differenciated
    • Closely resemble normal cell
    • Low grade of malignancy
    • Malignant and slow growing
    • G4 - poorly differenciated
    • Retain no normal cell charactreristics
    • High grade of malignancy
  17. Stagging of cancer
    TNM classification
    Primary tumor (T)
    • TX - cannot be assessed
    • T0 - no evidence of primary tumor
    • Tis - Carcinoma in situ
    • T1-4 - Increasing size or extent of the primary tumor
  18. Stagging of cancer
    TNM classification
    Regional lymph nodes (N)
    • Nx - Cannot be assessed
    • N0 - No regional lymph node metastasis
    • N1-3 - Increasing involvement of regional lymph node
  19. Stagging of cancer
    TNM classification
    Distant Metastasis (M)
    • Mx - Cannot be assessed
    • M0 - No distant metastasis
    • M1 - Distant metastasis
  20. Doubling time
    The time it takes the for a tumor to double in size
  21. Mitotic index
    The % of actively dividing cells within a tumor
  22. 2 physical agents that are known to cause cancer
    • Ratiation
    • Chronic irritation
  23. 2 types of radiation
    • Ionizing
    • Ultraviolet
  24. Sources of UV radiation
    • Solar
    • Tanning bed
    • Germicidal lights
  25. Sources of ionizing radiation
    • Radon
    • Uranium
    • Radium
    • Medical X-rays
  26. Viral carcinogens
    • Epstein-barr
    • Hepatits B and C
    • HPV
  27. 7 warning signs of cancer
    • C - Change in bowel or bladder habit
    • A - A sore that wont heal
    • U - Unusual bleeding or discharge
    • T - Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere
    • I - Ingestion or difficulty swallowing
    • O - Obvious change in a wart or mole
    • N - Nagging cough or hoarseness
  28. Personal risk factors
    • Age
    • Immune function
    • Genetic risk
  29. Primary prevention of cancer
    • Avoid known cause of carcinogen
    • Removal of at risk tissue
    • Chemoprevention
    • Vaccination
    • Modification of associated factors
  30. Secondary prevention of cancer
    • Regular screening
    • Altering damaged genes
    • Genetic screening

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