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Increased CA risk factors for;
- Throat-ETOH and smoking
- Oral-smokeless tobacco and pipes
- environmental factors (radiation, toxins)
- thyroid problems (goiter, CA)
Parasthesia (decreased sensation)
Postauricular nodes drain what areas? (2)
- Parietal area of scalp
- External auditory canal
Prauricular nodes drain what areas? (6)
- Lateral eyelids
- Upper face
- External auditory canal
How would you assess the supraclavicular nodes?
Hunch the shoulders to relax the muscle
What technique helps in palpating the deep cervical nodes?
Bending ipsilaterally (to the same side, which relaves the muscle)
- Bilateral, warm, mobile, and tender nodes
- Drain adjacent tissue so look for source
- Hard, fixed, unilateral, nontender node
- Supraclavicular node (metastatic site); may indicate neoplasm in the thorax, breast or abdomen
- Enlarged lymph nodes (>1cm)
- d/t infection, allergy, or neoplasm
Lymph nodes are accessible to examination in what areas (4)?
Head and neck, arms, axillae, and inguinal regions
What areas drain into the Right Lymphatic Duct?
The Thoracic Duct?
- R lymphatic: right head, neck, arm, thorax, lung, pleura, heart, and upper liver
- Thoracic: everything else
Drainage from lymph nodes circulates where?
- Right lymphatic duct or Thoracic duct
- Then into the Subclavian vein
Fxns of lymphocytes in lymph nodes
Engulf bacteria, RBCs, toxins, microorganisms, and abnormal cells
Tissues without lymph vessels (3)
Lymph structures (6)
- Lymph nodes
- Spleen (produces antibodies)
- Thymus (chest)
- Tonsils and adenoids
- Peyer's Patches (intestinal lymph tissue)
- Bone marrow (produces WBCs)
How do you assess CN 11?
Shoulder shrug against resistance
Neck ROM (degrees)
Flexure (head to chin)?
Lateral flexure (ear to shoulder)?
- Flexure - 45*
- Lateral flexion - 40*
- Rotation - 70*
- Extension - 55*
Collapsed lung causes the trachea to shift from midline to the UNaffected side
Thyroid gland structure?
- 2 lobes and an isthmus
- Butterfly shaped
- Each lobe is 5cm x 3cm x 2m
Thyroid gland hormones
- T4 - Thyroxine
- T3 - Triiodothyronine
Midline neck structures (5)
- Hyoid bone (at floor of mouth)
- Thyroid cartilage (adam's apple)
- Cricoid cartilage (upper tracheal ring; cricoidotomy)
- Tracheal Rings
- Thyroid gland (endocrine)
Two triangles of the neck
- Anterior (anterior to SCM)
- Posterior (b/n SCM and Trapezius)
Two major neck muscles
- SCM-Sternocleidomastoid (rotates head side to side)
- Trapezius (shoulder shrug, rotates head side to side, extends head backwards
The accessory muscles of respiration are innervated by which cranial nerve?
CN 11 - Spinal Accessory Nerve
Which vertebra is the vertebral prominens?
C7 - location where the head is flexed
When are Parotid Glands palpable?
With enlarged mumps or blocked parotid duct (loose jaw angle)
How will an abnormal TMJ joint open?
- There can also be:
- Pain, Crepitus, Decreased ROM, or Locking
- Facial nerve
- Facial movements and expression
- Sweet and salty taste on anterior 2/3 of tongue
- Temporal and masseter muscles
- Light touch in ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular areas
Parkinson's disease has what type of facial expression?
Nasolabial folds may be absent when?
Fused bones of the face
- NormoCephalic (round, symmetric)
Four sets of skull bones
Effects of HYPOthyroidsm on:
- Dry skin, brittle hair
- Weight gain
Effects of HYPERthyroidism on
- Fine, silky, soft hair
- Weight loss
Inflammation of lymph vessels d/t systemic neoplastic disease, bacterial infection, or other inflammatory conditions/s: enlarged, tender, firm nodes with surrounding edema and erythema (cat scratch disease)
- Inflammation of lymph vessels d/t strep infection of extremities
- s/s: red streaks, fever, chills
d/t lymph duct trauma (surgery or metastasis)
Milroy disease; mal-development of lymph system
Excessive collection of fluid in the interstitial spaces d/t blocked or infected lymphatic channels
2 head and neck changes in Aging Adults
- change in curve of neck compensates for kyphosis
- prominent facial bones d/t decreased elasticity of tissues
Premature closure of 1 or more sutures while brain growth is still continuing
- Diamond shape
- Closes at 24 months
- Triangle shape
- Closes at 2 months
Fetal skull seperated by?
- Fontanels and sutures
- Allows for growth
How long do you record the head circumference of an infant?
Up to 2 yo
Supraclavicular nodes drain what areas?(4)
- Upper abdomen
Posterior Cervical Chain nodes draiin what areas? (3)
- Posterior scalp
- Posterior skin of neck
Deep Cervical Chain nodes drain what areas? (5)
- Upper esophagus
Superficial/Anterior Cervicalnodes drain what area?
Skin of ear and neck
Tonsillar/Jugulodigastric nodes drain what areas? (8)
- Frontotemporal skin
- External auditory meatus
- Tympanic cavity
- Posterior palate
- Floor of mouth
Submandibular/Submaxillary glands drain what areas? (4)
Submental nodes drain what areas? (3)
Occipital nodes drain what area?
Parietal region of scalp