N202 Final

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Anonymous
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51882
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N202 Final
Updated:
2010-11-27 17:36:47
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N202 Assessment Head Neck Lymph
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Final exam section
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  1. Increased CA risk factors for;
    Throat?

    Oral?
    • Throat-ETOH and smoking
    • Oral-smokeless tobacco and pipes
    • Also:
    • environmental factors (radiation, toxins)
    • thyroid problems (goiter, CA)
  2. Neurologic Systems:
    Sensory?

    Motor?
    Parasthesia (decreased sensation)

    Paresis (weakness)
  3. Postauricular nodes drain what areas? (2)
    • Parietal area of scalp
    • External auditory canal
  4. Prauricular nodes drain what areas? (6)
    • Scalp
    • Forehead
    • Lateral eyelids
    • Eyes
    • Upper face
    • External auditory canal
  5. How would you assess the supraclavicular nodes?
    Hunch the shoulders to relax the muscle
  6. What technique helps in palpating the deep cervical nodes?
    Bending ipsilaterally (to the same side, which relaves the muscle)
  7. Infection lymphadenopathy
    • Bilateral, warm, mobile, and tender nodes
    • Drain adjacent tissue so look for source
  8. Malignant lymphadenopathy
    • Hard, fixed, unilateral, nontender node
    • Supraclavicular node (metastatic site); may indicate neoplasm in the thorax, breast or abdomen
  9. Lymphadenopathy
    • Enlarged lymph nodes (>1cm)
    • d/t infection, allergy, or neoplasm
  10. Lymph nodes are accessible to examination in what areas (4)?
    Head and neck, arms, axillae, and inguinal regions
  11. What areas drain into the Right Lymphatic Duct?
    The Thoracic Duct?
    • R lymphatic: right head, neck, arm, thorax, lung, pleura, heart, and upper liver
    • Thoracic: everything else
  12. Drainage from lymph nodes circulates where?
    • Right lymphatic duct or Thoracic duct
    • Then into the Subclavian vein
  13. Fxns of lymphocytes in lymph nodes
    Engulf bacteria, RBCs, toxins, microorganisms, and abnormal cells
  14. Tissues without lymph vessels (3)
    • Cornea
    • CNS
    • Placenta
  15. Lymph structures (6)
    • Lymph nodes
    • Spleen (produces antibodies)
    • Thymus (chest)
    • Tonsils and adenoids
    • Peyer's Patches (intestinal lymph tissue)
    • Bone marrow (produces WBCs)
  16. How do you assess CN 11?
    Shoulder shrug against resistance
  17. Neck ROM (degrees)
    Flexure (head to chin)?
    Lateral flexure (ear to shoulder)?
    Rotation?
    Extension (backwards)?
    • Flexure - 45*
    • Lateral flexion - 40*
    • Rotation - 70*
    • Extension - 55*
  18. Goiter
    Thyromegaly
  19. Tension Pneumothorax
    Collapsed lung causes the trachea to shift from midline to the UNaffected side
  20. Thyroid gland structure?
    Shape?
    Size?
    • 2 lobes and an isthmus
    • Butterfly shaped
    • Each lobe is 5cm x 3cm x 2m
  21. Thyroid gland hormones
    • T4 - Thyroxine
    • T3 - Triiodothyronine
  22. Midline neck structures (5)
    • Hyoid bone (at floor of mouth)
    • Thyroid cartilage (adam's apple)
    • Cricoid cartilage (upper tracheal ring; cricoidotomy)
    • Tracheal Rings
    • Thyroid gland (endocrine)
  23. Two triangles of the neck
    • Anterior (anterior to SCM)
    • Posterior (b/n SCM and Trapezius)
  24. Two major neck muscles
    • SCM-Sternocleidomastoid (rotates head side to side)
    • Trapezius (shoulder shrug, rotates head side to side, extends head backwards
  25. The accessory muscles of respiration are innervated by which cranial nerve?
    CN 11 - Spinal Accessory Nerve
  26. Which vertebra is the vertebral prominens?
    C7 - location where the head is flexed
  27. When are Parotid Glands palpable?
    With enlarged mumps or blocked parotid duct (loose jaw angle)
  28. How will an abnormal TMJ joint open?
    • Zig-zag
    • There can also be:
    • Pain, Crepitus, Decreased ROM, or Locking
  29. CN 7
    Motor fxns?
    Sensory fxns?
    • Facial nerve
    • Facial movements and expression
    • Sweet and salty taste on anterior 2/3 of tongue
  30. CN 5
    Motor fxns?
    Sensory fxns?
    • Trigeminal
    • Temporal and masseter muscles
    • Light touch in ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular areas
  31. Parkinson's disease has what type of facial expression?
    Mask Like
  32. Nasolabial folds may be absent when?
    With Stroke
  33. Fused bones of the face
    • Frontal
    • Nasal
    • Zygomatic
    • Lacrimal
    • Sphenoid
    • Maxilla
  34. NCAT
    • NormoCephalic (round, symmetric)
    • ATraumatic
  35. Four sets of skull bones
    • Frontal
    • Parietal
    • Temporal
    • Occcipital
  36. Effects of HYPOthyroidsm on:
    Cardiovascular?
    GI?
    Integument?
    Neuro?
    Temperature?
    Weight?
    • Bradycardia
    • Constipation
    • Dry skin, brittle hair
    • Fatigue
    • Cold
    • Weight gain
  37. Effects of HYPERthyroidism on
    Cardiovascular?
    GI?
    Integument?
    Neurologic?
    Temperature?
    Weight?
    • Tachycardia
    • Diarrhea
    • Fine, silky, soft hair
    • Nervousness
    • Hot
    • Weight loss
  38. Acute lymphadenitis?
    Inflammation of lymph vessels d/t systemic neoplastic disease, bacterial infection, or other inflammatory conditions/s: enlarged, tender, firm nodes with surrounding edema and erythema (cat scratch disease)
  39. Acute lymphangitis?
    • Inflammation of lymph vessels d/t strep infection of extremities
    • s/s: red streaks, fever, chills
  40. Acquired lymphedema?

    Congenital Lymphedema?
    d/t lymph duct trauma (surgery or metastasis)

    Milroy disease; mal-development of lymph system
  41. Lymphedema
    Excessive collection of fluid in the interstitial spaces d/t blocked or infected lymphatic channels
  42. 2 head and neck changes in Aging Adults
    • change in curve of neck compensates for kyphosis
    • prominent facial bones d/t decreased elasticity of tissues
  43. Chloasma
    Facial discoloration
  44. Craniostenosis
    Premature closure of 1 or more sutures while brain growth is still continuing
  45. Sunken fontanels?
    Buldging fontanels?
    • Dehydration
    • Increased ICP
  46. Anterior fontanel
    • Diamond shape
    • Closes at 24 months
  47. Posterior fontanel
    • Triangle shape
    • Closes at 2 months
  48. Fetal skull seperated by?
    Why?
    • Fontanels and sutures
    • Allows for growth
  49. How long do you record the head circumference of an infant?
    Up to 2 yo
  50. Supraclavicular nodes drain what areas?(4)
    • Upper abdomen
    • Lungs
    • Breasts
    • Arms
  51. Posterior Cervical Chain nodes draiin what areas? (3)
    • Posterior scalp
    • Posterior skin of neck
    • Thyroid
  52. Deep Cervical Chain nodes drain what areas? (5)
    • Ear
    • Larynx
    • Thyroid
    • Trachea
    • Upper esophagus
  53. Superficial/Anterior Cervicalnodes drain what area?
    Skin of ear and neck
  54. Tonsillar/Jugulodigastric nodes drain what areas? (8)
    • Eyelids
    • Frontotemporal skin
    • External auditory meatus
    • Tympanic cavity
    • Tonsils
    • Posterior palate
    • Floor of mouth
    • Thyroid
  55. Submandibular/Submaxillary glands drain what areas? (4)
    • Lips
    • Mouth
    • Tongue
    • Submaxillary
  56. Submental nodes drain what areas? (3)
    • Mouth
    • Lips
    • Tongue
  57. Occipital nodes drain what area?
    Parietal region of scalp

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