Bio Final

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Bio Final
2010-11-28 18:01:50
Final Bio

Biology, final, hannah
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  1. Transformation
    transfer of information. (btwn s strain cells into the live r strain cells)
  2. Bacteriophages
    viruses that infect bacteria
  3. Nucleic Acid
  4. Nucleotides
    • building blocks of dna. composed of
    • 5carbon sugar (deoxyribose)
    • a phosphate group (PO4)
    • a nitrogenous base (a,t,c,g)
  5. Phosphodiester Bond
    bond between adjacent nucleotides
  6. Chargaff's Rule
    • amount of adenine = amount of thymine
    • amount of cytosine = amont of guanine

    A-T C-G
  7. Complementary Bases
    form hydrogen bonds on the opposite sugar-phosphate backbone
  8. Double-Helix
    structure of DNA, proposed by Watson & Crick
  9. Antiparallel
    • how the two strands of nucleotides are lined up.
    • they wrap around each other to create the helical shape of the molecule.
  10. Deoxyribose
    sugar made up of nucliec acid
  11. Conservative Model
    of the two helics, one would be of old material and the other of new material

    the old parent double helix would be unchanged

    PRODUCT: one would expect to find two layers, one of N14 and the other of N15, in the first generation, and similarly for subsequent generations
  12. Semi-conservative Model
    each strand of the two double helices would have one old and one new strand

    • PRODUCT: the first generation would be expected to show a hybrid N1.+NI5 layer. With each generation after the second the N14 layer would show a greater accumulation of material
    • DNA replicates this way
    • the double strands formed are identical to parent
  13. Dispersive Model
    • double helix would break at several points forming many pieces.
    • Each piece would replicate, and then the pieces would reconnect at random. Thus the two double helices formed would have a patchwork of old and new pieces
    • PRODUCT:tubes of all generations would be expected to show a single layer (N14+N15), since the DNA would contain both new and old materialmixed up.
  14. Initiation
    replication begins at an origin of replication
  15. Orgin of replication
    where replication begins
  16. Elongation
    new strands of DNA are synthesized by DNA polymerase
  17. DNA Polymerase
    • synthesizes DNA strands
    • PolyIII-many polymerase responsible for majority of DNA synthesis, adds nucleotides to the 3" end of the daughter strand of DNA
  18. Termination
    replication is terminated differently in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  19. Helicase
    enzyme that unwoundsd the double helix
  20. Leading Strand
    synthesized discontinuously (same direction as the replication fork)
  21. Lagging Strand
    synthesized discontinously creaking Okazaki fragments
  22. Telomeres
    • repeated DNA sequence on the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes
    • produced by telomerase
  23. Telomerase
    contains an RNA region thats used as template so that a dNA primer can be produced
  24. Central Dogma (rna)
    states that info flows in one direction

  25. Transcription (rna
    flow of info from DNA to RNA
  26. Translation (rna)
    flow of info from RNA to protien
  27. Codon (rna)
    set of 3 nucleotides that specifies a particular amino acid
  28. Reading frame (rna)
    • serious of nucleotides read in sets of 3 (codon)
    • only 1 is correct for encoding the correct sequence of amino acids
  29. Stop Codons (rna)
    • 3 codons in the genetic code used to terminate translation
    • (UUA, UGA, UAG)
    • recognized by release factors which release the polypeptide from the ribosome
  30. Start Codons (rna)
    the AUG codon used tosignify start of translation
  31. Template strand (rna)
    strand of the DNA double helix used to make RNA
  32. Coding Strand (rna)
    strand of DNA that is complementary to the template strand
  33. RNA polymerase (rna)
    the enzyme that synthesizes RNA from the DNA template
  34. Initiation (proceed of transcription) for RNA
    RNA polymerase identifies where to begin transcription
  35. elongation (proceed transcription) for RNA
    RNA nucleotides are added to the 3" end of the new RNA
  36. Termination (proceed of transcription) for RNA
    RNA polymerase stops transcription when it encounters terminators in the DNA sequence
  37. Transcription Factors (RNA)
    • initiation of transption of mRNA requires a serious of transcription factors:
    • proteins that act to bind RNA polymerase to the promoter and initiate transcription
  38. messenger RNA (mRNA)
    carries the information from DNA that encodes protiens
  39. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    is a structural component of the ribosome
  40. transfer RNA (tRNA)
    carries amino acids to the ribosomes for translation
  41. Transcription Bubble
    • moves down DNA template and consists:
    • RNA plymerase, DNA template, growing RNA transcript
  42. 5' cap (rna)
    • modified in primary transcript of eukaryotes
    • an addition
  43. 3' poly-A tail (rna)
    • modified in primary transcript of eukaryotes
    • an addition
  44. Introns (rna)
    removal of non-coding sequences in
  45. Spliceosome (rna)
    the organelle responsible for remving introns and splicing exons together
  46. Introns & Exons (rna)
    small ribonucleoprotien particles (snRNPs) within the spliceosome recogize the intron-exon boundaries

    • intron-non-coding sequence
    • exons-sequences that will be translated
  47. tRNA
    • in translation, molecules carry amino acids to the ribosomes for incorporation into a polypeptide
    • amino acids are added to the acceptor arm of tRNA
  48. P Site (rna)
    one of the binding sites ribosomes have for tRNA

    it binds the tRNA attached to the growing peptide chain
  49. A site (rna)
    bind the tRNA carrying the next amino acid
  50. E site (rna)
    binds the tRNA that carried the last amino acid
  51. Point Mutations (Rna)
    alter a single base
  52. Base Substitution mutations (rna)
    part of point mutations
    substitute one base for another
  53. Nonsense mutations (rna)
    part of point mutations
    create stop codon
  54. Frameshift mutations (rna)
    part of point mutations
    caused by insertion or deletion of a single base