N202 Anus, Rectum & Prostate

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dlourey
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51960
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N202 Anus, Rectum & Prostate
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2010-11-28 02:53:44
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N202 Anus Rectum Prostate
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N202 Anus, Rectum & Prostate
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  1. What is the length of the anus, rectum and
    sigmoid colon?
    • Anus: (2.5-4cm)
    • Rectum: ( 12cm)
    • Sigmoid colon: ( 40cm)
  2. What is the function of internal anal sphincter?
    Involuntary control- when the rectum fills with stool, the internal sphincter relaxes and results in the urge to defecate.
  3. What is the function of the external anal sphincter?
    Voluntary control of defecation
  4. What is the definition and cause of
    hemorrhoids?
    Hemorrhoids- varicose anal veins

    They are due to chronic increased venous pressure (constipation/straining with BMs)
  5. What is meconium?
    It is the first stool passed by the newborn that is dark green, and occurs within 24 to 48 hours of birth.
  6. What is gastro-colic reflex?
    It is the reflex causing increased peristalisis/BM after each feeding.
  7. What is melena, and what causes it?
    • It is a dark tarry stool
    • Caused from an upper GI bleed (gastric/ duodenal ulcer or cancer)
  8. What is hematochezia and what causes it?
    • Maroon stools
    • Lower GI bleed ( or UGI bleed with rapid motility)
  9. What is BRBPR, and what causes it?
    Drips of blood in toilet or on toilet tissue- hemorrhoids, polyps, tumor
  10. What is steatorrhea, and what causes it?
    • Excess fat in stool
    • Pancreatic problem, malabsorption
  11. What is clay colored stools, and what causes it?
    Absence of bile pigment- biliary obstruction (liver problem, gallstones)
  12. What are black stools, and what causes them?
    • Melena(dark tarry stool)- upper GI bleed ( gastric/ duodenal ulcer or cancer)
    • Iron or Bismuth(or Peptobismo)
  13. What are some lifestyle factors affecting
    constipation?
    • Not getting enough fluid, fiber and exercise
    • Some medications can cause it too: antidepressants, antihistamines(Diphenhydramine, Benadryl), calcium channel blocker (Verapamil), and Iron
  14. What are the 3 purposes of rectal exam?
    • Assess anorectal area
    • Prostate exam in males
    • Bimanual recto-vaginal exam in women
  15. What are the risk factors for colorectal
    cancer?
    • Age > 50 years old
    • Hig fat/ low fiber diet
    • Obesity
    • Smoking
    • Precancerous Intestinal polyps
    • Inflammatory Bowel Disease ( Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis)
    • Family History of colon cancer, adenomatous polyposis( precancerous polyps)
  16. What are some health promotion and
    screening recommendations that should be done monthly?
    • Monthly- genital self exam (GSE) & testicular self exam ( TSE)
  17. What are some health promotion and
    screening recommendations that should be done annually?
    • DRE (digital rectal exam- screen for prostate and colon cancer)
    • PSA - a nonspecific blood test for prostate caner, will also increase with inflammation and BPH
    • Fecal occult blood test (FOBT)- guaiac testing
  18. What are some health promotion and screening recommendations that should be done every 5 years?
    • Routine screening starting at age 50
    • Flexible sigmoidoscopy
  19. What are some health promotion and screening recommendations that should be done every 10 years?
    • Routine screening starting at age 50
    • Colonoscopy
  20. What is the purpose of fecal occult
    blood (guaiac) testing?

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