pharm. 12

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pharm. 12
2010-11-28 03:31:05

Pharmacology 12/test
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  1. Sedative
    • -reduce the desire for physical activity
    • -Prescribed after a heart attack or some other condition when overexertion may be harmful and mental condition
  2. Hypnotics
    -Prescribed to induced and maintain sleep
  3. REM “rapid eye movement”
    • **important**
    • -dreaming and mental physical respiratory
    • -approximately 20 to 25% of total sleep time
    • -neuron rechargeable
  4. NREM “non rapid eye movement”
    • -physical
    • -restore your body, muscle, and relax
    • -lower doses, barbiturates increase GABA. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS that reduces neuronal excitability especially in the reticular activating excitability
    • -Increase effects of GABA reduces brain activity and promotes sleep
    • **There is no antidote for barbiturate overdose**
  6. Barbiturates:
    • pentobarbital(Nembutal)-immediate, 4 to 6hr
    • pentobarbital(Luminal)-Long 6 to 12hr, used to treat severe epilepsy
    • secobarbital(Seconal)-Short,2 to 4hr
  7. Nonbarturates:
    • chloral hydrate(Noctec)-short, 2 to 4hr
    • zolpidem(Ambien)-Short, 2 to 4hr, sleep aid
  8. Benzodiapines:
    • flurazepam(Dalmane)-Long 6 to 12hr
    • Diazepam(Valium)-Short 2 to 4hr
  9. Patient teaching
    • -monitor vital signs and pt response when barbiturates and benzodiazepines are administered parenterally
    • -explain the potential drug side effects: excessive drowsiness, mental confusion, and a drug hangover effect the following day
    • -Explain to pt. the dangers of activities such as driving while under the influence of sedative and hypnotics drugs
    • -explain to pt. the danger of combining alcohol and other CNS depressant drugs with sedatives and hypnotics
    • -remind pt. that these drugs should not be used for more then 2 wk at a time unless otherwise instructed
    • -warm pt. of the potential for drug dependency when hypnotics are used continuously for prolonged periods