Neurology

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Author:
jproenca@rediffmail.com
ID:
51991
Filename:
Neurology
Updated:
2010-12-03 10:18:49
Tags:
Migraine Vascular headaches aura headaches
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Description:
On Headaches
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  1. Major auras in migraine
    Visual

    Sensory

    Language
  2. Percentage of migraineurs with aura
    33%
  3. How long does the aura in migraine last
    5 to 60 mins
  4. Differential for a aura in migraine
    Ischaemia related

    Seizure
  5. Differentiate aura of migraine from ischemia related aura
    Migraine aura has

    SLOW MIGRATORY and SPREADING quality

    SEQUENTIAL
  6. Least common aura in migraine
    Motor
  7. The body that defines headache
    International Headache Society
  8. What is the biphasic quality of the migraine aura
    Positive phenomenon appears first followed within a few minutes by negatve phenomenon
  9. What are the language auras in migraine
    Paraphasic errors

    Word retrieval errors
  10. Name the motor aura in Migraine
    Hemiplegic Migraine
  11. How long can the weakness in hemiplegic Migraine last
    Hours to Days
  12. Is there a biphasic pattern to the aura in a seizure
    Yes.

    But the rate is much much faster
  13. Name a positive sensory aura in migraine
    Tingling
  14. Name a negative aura in migraine
    Numbness
  15. List two negative visual auras in migraine
    SCOTOMA

    VISUAL LOS
  16. What is the classic visual aura seen in Migraine
    Fortification Spectra
  17. Another name for Fortification Spectra
    Teichopsia
  18. How are the lines arranges in a fortification spectra


    At Right Angles



  19. What Aura is this
    Scintillations
  20. Name the characterisic visual phenomenon in Migraine aura
    SPARKLES

    MACROPSIA

    MICROPSIA

    CEREBRAL POLYOPIA

    PALINOPSIA

    METAMORPHOSIA

    PROSOPAGNOSIA

    DYSCHROMATOPSIA
  21. Alice in Wonderland syndrome in MIgraine



    Distortion of body images
  22. What is Acephalgic Migraine
    Migraine Aura with the absence of headache
  23. Causes for Persistent Visual Loss in Migraine
    Retinopathy

    Chroidopathy

    Ant. Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy

    Post. Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy

    Drusen in Optic Nerve

    Stroke in Migraine

    Retinal Migraine
  24. Causes for Retinopathy in Migraine
    Retinal Artery and Vein Occlusion

    Retinal Haemorrhage
  25. Ant. Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy affects which part of the Optic Nerve
    Optic Nerve Head
  26. Most common cause of Optic Neuropathy in patients above the age of 50
    Ant. Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy
  27. Clinical features of Ant. Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy
    Painless Visual Loss over days

    Afferent pupillary defects

    Nerve Fibre bundle or Central visual field defect
  28. What is more common, AION or PION
    AION
  29. Which part of the Optic Nerve is involved in PION
    Intra-orbital

    Intra-canalicular

    Intra-cranial part of the Optic Nerve
  30. How does Ergotamine derivatives cause Optic Neuropathy
    Vasospasm of the optic nerve vessels
  31. What is Drusen
    Hyaline crystalline material
  32. What is the likely pathophysiology for Drusen
    Persistent accumulation of calcium due to abnormal axonal metabolism
  33. Symptoms in Optic Nerve Drusen
    Asymptomatic

    Mild nerve fibre bundle visual field defect
  34. Stroke due to migraine is known to cause what type of visual field defect
    Homonymous Hemianopia
  35. What is the progression of Sensory Aura in Migraine
    Begins in the arm or hands

    Jumps to the face before reaching the shoulder

    Spreads over the face and goes to involve the inside of the mouth and half of the tongue
  36. What are the two pathophysiologic explanations for a Migraine Aura
    Vasogenic

    Neurogenic
  37. What does the Neurogenic theory in Migaine Aura postulate
    Cortical Spreading Depression
  38. MRI is better tha CT Head ihi type of lesions
    Post. Fossa and Cervico-medullary lesions.

    Pituitary Lesions.

    Meningeal Disease.

    Vascular Lesions.
  39. What meningeal diseases are better visualised with MRI
    Meningel Carcinomatosis

    Sarcoid

    Diffuse meningeal enhancement due to low CSF pressure syndromes.
  40. Vascular lesions better visualised on MRI
    Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Epidural and Subdural Hematomas
  41. Brain infections better visualised on MRI
    Cerebritis.

    Brain Abscess.
  42. Common malignancies that are associated with Radiation exposure
    Leukemia

    Thyroid

    Breast

    Lung

    Stomach
  43. What is the latency period for solid tumours following radiation exposure
    10 - 20 Years
  44. What is the Latency period for Leukemia fllng radiation exposure
    3 - 5 Years
  45. Why is the Pediatric population at higher risk for radiation exposure complications
    Increased radiosensitivity
  46. What is the total radiation exposure in pregnany while using Lead Shielding
    1 mRad
  47. When is the fetus susceptible to the teratonic effects of radiation
    2 wk - 20wks
  48. Indications for MRI Brain study during pregnancy
    Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Pituitary Apoplexy

    Metastatic Choriocarcinoma
  49. Advise given to lactating mothers following IV Iodinated contrast or gadolinium
    Dicard the breast milk for 24 hours
  50. How can the headches following LP be reduced
    Using atraumatic needles ( Whitacare/Sprotte)

    Replace the stylet before withdrawing the needle.
  51. What percentage of Migraneurs can have onset of headche at the age of 50
    2%
  52. Significance of Hb in headache
    Anaemia can cause headache
  53. What % of hypothyroidism can cause headaches
    14%
  54. Significance of platelets in Headaches
    Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura
  55. What is the duration of Chronic Headaches
    3 months
  56. What are the various blood tests that need to be one in headaches
    Hb

    Platelets

    RFT

    TSH

    Calcium
  57. A Pituitary hemorrhage mimics what condition
    Migraine
  58. Pituitary Infarction mimics what
    Aseptic meningitis

    Meningo-encephalitis
  59. Which sinusitis can mimic migraine
    Sphenoid Sinusitis
  60. Headaches that can awaken one from sleep
    Migraine

    Cluster Headaches
  61. What % of migraneurs have white matter abnormalities
    12 - 46%
  62. WMA are more common in which part of the brain
    Frontal Lobe
  63. What should I suspect when migraneurs have extensive WMA
    CADASIL

    Anti Phospholipid AB Syndrome
  64. What are the 3 causes for side-locked headaches
    AV Malformations (95%)

    Migraine with aura

    Migraine without headache
  65. Parenchymal AVM's are more common in which lobe
    Occipital Lobe
  66. What is the character of headaches in AVM
    Atypical Headaches
  67. AVM's in which location is usually associated with Migraine like headaches
    AVM's in the brainstem
  68. What are the phenotypes of Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalgia's (TACS)
    Cluster Headaches

    Hemicrania Continua

    SUNCT (short lasting unilateral neuralgiform headaches with conjunctival injection and tearing)
  69. Five characteristics of Hemicrania Continua
    Unilateral

    Moderate intensity

    Continuous

    Exacerbations

    Relieved with Indomethacin

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