Med Term Chapter 5.txt

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Med Term Chapter 5.txt
2010-11-28 16:05:42
Med Term

Medical Terminology
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  1. pulmonary circulation
    circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
  2. Coronary circulation
    circulation of blood
  3. Systemic circulation
    circulation of blood throughout the body via arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
  4. Veins
    Vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
  5. Capillaries
    Tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
  6. Venules
    Small vessels that recieve blood from the arteries
  7. Capillaries
    Tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
  8. Arterioles
    Small vessels that recieve blood from the arteries
  9. Aorta
    Large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle
  10. Arteries
    Vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
  11. Valves of the viens
    Valves located at intervals within the lining of veins, especially in the legs, which constrict with muscle action to move the blood returning to the heart
  12. Tricuspid Valve
    Valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
  13. Pulmonary semilunar valve
    Heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
  14. Mitral Valve
    Bicuspid Valve
    Heart valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle
  15. Aortic valve
    Heart valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
  16. Heart valves
    Structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the one-way flow of blood
  17. Ventricle
    Lower right or left chamber or heart
  18. Pericardial cavity
    Fluid filled cavity between the pericardial layer
  19. Visceral pericardium
    Layer closest to the heart
  20. Pericardium
    Protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between
  21. Myocardium
    Heart Muscle
  22. Interventricular septum
    Partition between the right and left ventricles
  23. Interatial septum
    Partition between the right and left atria
  24. Endocardium
    Membrane lining the cavities of the heart
  25. Atrium
    Upper right or left chamber of the heart
  26. Ventricul/o
    Ventricle (belly or pouch)
  27. Varic/o
    Swollen twisted vein
  28. Ven/o
  29. Thromb/o
  30. Sphygm/o
  31. Pector/o
  32. My/o
  33. Coron/o
    Circle or crown
  34. Cardi/o
  35. Atri/o
  36. Ather/o
    Fatty paste
  37. Arteri/o
  38. Aort/o
  39. Sinoatrial mode
    The pacemaker; highly specialized, neurological tissue impeded in the wall of the right atrium; responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV
  40. Atrioventricular node
    Neurological tissue in the center of the heart that recieves and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
  41. Bundle of His
    Neurological fibers extending from the AV node to the right and left bundle branches that fire the impulse from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers
  42. Purkinje Fibers
    Purkinje Network
    Fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles causing them to contract
  43. Polarization
    Resting; resting state of a myocardial cell
  44. Depolarization
    Change of a myocardial cell from a polarized state to a state of contraction
  45. Repolarization
    Recharging of the myocardial cell from a contracted state back to a resting state
  46. Normal sinus rhythm
    Regular rhythm of heart cycle stimulated by the SA node
  47. Aneurysm
    A widening; a bulging of the wall of the heart, aorta, or artery caused by a congenital defect or aquired weakness
  48. Saccular aneurysm
    A sac like bulge on one side
  49. Fusiform aneurysm
    A spindle shaped bulge
  50. Dissecting aneurysm
    A split or tear of the vessel wall
  51. Angina pectoris
    Chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle; often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries
  52. Arteriosclerosis
    A form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the buildup of fatty substances that harden within walls of arteries
  53. Atheromatous plaque
    A swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fat
  54. Claudication
    To limp; pain in a limb while walking that subsides after rest; caused by inadequate blood supply
  55. Constriction
    Compression of a part that causes narrowing
  56. Diaphoresis
    Profuse sweating
  57. Embolus
    A clot carried in the bloodstream that obstructs the flow of blood when it lodges
  58. Heart murmur
    An abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in chambers or valves
  59. Infarct
    To stuff; a localized area of necrosis caused by ischemia resulting from occlusion of a blood vessel
  60. Ischemia
    To hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
  61. Perfusion duct
    Lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing, occlusion etc
  62. Occlusion
    Plugging; an obstruction or a closing off
  63. Palpitation
    Subjective evidence of pounding, skipping, or racing heartbeats
  64. Stenosis
    Conditiob of narrowing of a part
  65. Thrombus
    a stationary blood clot
  66. Vegetation
    To grow; an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally as a result of infection
  67. Acute coronary syndrome
    Signs and symptoms indicating an active process of atherosclerotic plaque buildup or formation of a thrombus or spasm within coronary artery, causing a reduction or loss of blood flow to myocardial tissue
  68. Arrhythmia
    Any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythn of the heartbeat
  69. Bradycardia
    Slow heart rate
  70. Fibrillation
    Chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation
  71. Premature ventricular contraction
    A ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node
  72. Tachycardia
    Fast heart rate
  73. Bacterial endocarditis
    A bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves
  74. Cardiac tamponade
    Compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac, as results from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart
  75. Cardiomyopathy
    A general term for disease of the heart muscle, such as alcoholic cardiomyopathy
  76. Congenital anomaly of the heart
    Malformations of the heart that are present at birth
  77. Atrial septal defect
    An opening in the septum separating the atria
  78. Coarctation of the aorta
    Narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta, resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body
  79. Patent ductus arteriosus
    An abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after death
  80. Ventricular septal defect
    An opening in the septum seperating the ventricles
  81. Congestive heart failure
    Failure of the left ventricle to pump and adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body, resulting in a bottleneck of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edema in lower portions of the body
  82. Cor pulmonale
    Enlargement of the right ventricle, resulting chronic disease within the lungs, that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs
  83. Coronary artery disease
    A condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium; most often caused by atherosclerosis
  84. Hypertension
    Persistently high blood pressure
  85. Essential hypertension
    High blood pressure attributed to no single cause; risk include smoking, obesity, increase salt intake, hypercholesterolemia, and hereditary factors
  86. Primary hypertension
    Essential hypertension
  87. Secondary hypertension
    High blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease
  88. Mitral valve prolapse
    Protusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
  89. Myocardial infarction
    Heart attack; death of myocardial tissue caused by loss of blood flow or ischemia as a result of an occlusion of thd coronary artery
  90. Myocarditis
    Inflammation of myocardium
  91. Pericarditis
    Inflammation of the pericardium
  92. Rheumatic heart disease
    Damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever
  93. Sudden cardiac arrest
    The abrupt cessation of any cardiac output
  94. Deep vein thrombosis
    Formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body, occuring most often in the femoral and iliac veins
  95. Phlebitis
    Inflammation of a vein
  96. Thrombophlebitis
    Inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
  97. Varicose veins
    Abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves; most often seen in the legs
  98. Auscultation
    Physical examination method of listening to sounds within the body with a stethoscope
  99. Gallop
    Abnormal heart sound that mimics the gait of a horse
  100. ECG
    an electrical picture of the heart represented by positive and negative deflections on a graph labeled with letters P,Q,R,S and T, which correspond to events of the cardiac cycle
  101. Stress electrocardiogram
    Stress ECG or EKG
    electrocardiogram of the heart recorded during the induction of controlled physical exercise using a treadmill or ergometer (bicycle); useful in detecting heart conditions
  102. Holter ambulatory monitor
    portable electrocardiograph worn by the patient that monitors electrical activity of the heart over 24 hours; useful in detecting periodic abnormalities
  103. intracardiac electrophysiological
    invasive procedure involving placement of catheter-guided electrodes within the heart to evaluate and map the electrical conduction of cardiac arrhythmias; intracardiac catheter ablation may be performed at the same time to treat the arrhythmia
  104. Intracardiac center ablation
    use of radiofrequency waves sent through a catheter within the heart to treat arrhythmias by selectively destroying myocardial tissue at sites that generate abnormal electrical pathways
  105. magnetic resonance angiography
    magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and blood vessels for evaluation of pathology
  106. nuclear medicine imaging
    radionuclide organ imaging of the heart after administration of radioactive isotopes to visualize structures and to analyze functions
  107. Myocardial Radionuclide Perfusion Scan
    scan of the heart made after and intravenous injection of an isotope as it is absorbed by myocardial cells in proportion to blood flow throughout the heart; useful in evaluating coronary artery disease
  108. Myocardial radionuclide perfusion stress scan
    nuclear perfusion scan of the heart that is made before and after the induction of controlled physical exercise or a pharmaceutical agent that produces the effect or exercise stress in patients who are unable to ambulate
  109. multiple-gated acquisition scan
    nuclear image of the beating heart in motion made as radioactive isotopes are injected in the bloodstream and traced through the heart's chambers; useful in evaluating the pumping function of the ventricles
  110. positron-emission tomography scan of the heart
    use of specialized nuclear isotopes and computed tomographic techniques to produce perfusion images and to study the cellular metabolism of the heart; can be performed at rest or with stress
  111. radiology
    x-ray imaging
  112. angiography
    process of x-ray imaging a blood vessel after injection of contrast medium, most commonly after catheter placement
  113. angiogram
    record obtained by angiography
  114. cardiac catheterization
    introduction of a flexible, narrow tube through a vein or artery into the heart to withdraw samples of bood, to measure pressures within the heart chambers or vessels, and to inject contrast media for fluoroscopic radiography and cine film imaging of the chambers of the heart and coronary arteries
  115. left heart catheterization
    x-ray imaging of the left ventricular cavity and coronary arteries
  116. right heart catheterization
    measurement of oxygen saturation and pressure readings of the right side of the heart
  117. ventriculogram
    x-ray image of the ventricles
  118. stroke volume
    measurement of the amount of blood ejected from a ventricle in one contraction
  119. cardiac output
    measurement of the amount of blood ejected per minute from either ventricle of the heart
  120. ejection fraction
    measurement of the volume percentage of left ventricular contents ejected with each contraction
  121. computed tomographic angiography
    specialized, noninvasive, three-dimensional computed tomographic scan of the heart and circulation of the "greater" blood vessels, such as the coronary arteries, aorta, and pulmonary veins; performed with or without contrast
  122. sonography
    sonographic imaging
  123. echocardiography
    recording of sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion
  124. stress echocardiogram
    echocardiogram of the heart recorded during the induction of controlled physical exercise or a pharmaceutical agent that produces the effect of exercise stress in patients who are unable to ambulate
  125. transesophageal echocardiogram
    echocardiogram of the heart after placement of an ultrasonic transducer at the end of an endoscope inside the esophagus
  126. doppler sonography
    ultrasound technique used to evaluate blood flow to determine the presence of a deep vein thrombosis or carotid insufficiency, or to determine flow through heart, chambers, valves, and so on
  127. coronary artery bypass graft
    grafting a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body to bypass an occluded coronary artery, restoring circulation to myocardial tissue
  128. anastomosis
    opening; the joining of two blood vessels to allow flow from one to the other
  129. endarterectomy
    surgical removal of the lining of an artery to clear a blockage caused by a clot or atherosclerotic plaque buildup
  130. valve replacement
    • surgery to replace a diseased heart valve with an artificial valve
    • Tissue valves (animal) and mechanical valves (artificial)
  131. valvuloplasty
    surgical repair of a defective heart valve
  132. percutaneous coronary intervention
    intervential procedures used to treat coronary artery disease performed at the time of cardiac catherterization in a specialized laboratory setting instead of the traditional operating room
  133. angioscopy
    vascular endoscopy
    use of a flexible fiberoptic angioscope that is guided through a specific blood vessel to visually assess a lesion and to select the mode of therapy
  134. atherectomy
    excision of atheromatous plaque from within an artery utilizing a device housed in a flexible catheter that selectively cuts away or pulverizes tissue buildup
  135. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
    a method for treating the narrowing of a coronary artery by inserting a specialized catheter with a balloon attachment, then inflating the balloon to dilate and open the narrowed portion of the vessel and restore blood flow to the myocardium
  136. intravascular stent placement
    implantation of a device used to reinforce the wall of a vessel and assure its patency (openness)
  137. defribillation
    termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivering an electrical stimulus to the heart
  138. defibrillator
    device that delivers the electrical stimulus in defibrillation
  139. cardioversion
    restoration of a fast or irregular heart rate to a normal rhythm, either by pharmaceutical means or by delivery of electrical energy
  140. implantable cardioverter defibrillator
    • an implanted, battery-operated device with rate-sensing leads
    • monitors cardiac impulses and initiates and electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia
  141. cardioversion
    restoration of a fast or irregular heart rate to a normal rhythm, either by pharmaceutical means or by delivery of electrical energy
  142. pacemaker
    a device used to treat slow heart rates by electrically stimulating the heart to contract
  143. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
    drug that suppresses the conversion of angiotensin in the blood by the angiotensin-converting enzyme
  144. antianginal
    drug that dilates coronary arteries, restoring oxygen to the tissues to relieve the pain of angina pectoris
  145. atiarrhythmic
    drug that counteracts cardiac arrhythmia
  146. anticoagulant
    drug that prevents clotting of blood
  147. antihypertensive
    drug that lowers blood pressure
  148. beta-adrenergic blocking agents
    agents that inhibit responses to sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity, casuing a slowing of electrical condcution and heart rate and a lowering of the pressure within the walls of the vessels
  149. calcium- channel blockers
    agents that inhibit the entry of calcium ions into heart muscle cells, causing a slowing of the heart, a lessening of the demand for oxygen and nutrients, and a relaxing of the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels to cause dilation
  150. cardiotonic
    drug that increases the force of myocardial contractions in the heart
  151. diurectic
    drug that increases the secretion of urine
  152. hypolipidemic
    drug that reduces serum fat and cholesterol
  153. thromobolytic agents
    drugs used to dissolve thrombi
  154. vasoconstrictor
    drug that causes a narrowing of the blood vessels
  155. vasodilator
    drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels