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What are the three parts of the brainstem listed in an inferior to superior arrangements?
- 1. Medulla Oblongata
- 2. Pons
- 3. Midbrain
What functions are controlled by the brainstem and why does damage here often leads to death?
- 1. The brainstem is responsible for many essential functions..(heartbeat, breathing, ect.)
- 2. Because the functions are responsible for survival.
Why is the medulla oblongata a "very busy place"?
Because it contains both ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) nerve tracts.
What are the reflex centers found in the medulla oblongata?
- 1. Pyramids (decending motor tracts in nerve tracts, are involved with the conscious control of skeletal muscles.)
- 2. Heart rate centers
- 3. Swallowing centers
- 4. Respiratory centers (also in pons)
- 5. vomiting, hiccukping, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing.
Since pyramids are descending motor tracts, this means that they are involved with what aspect about skeletal muscles? (Pyramids are found in the Medulla Oblongata)
THE CONSCIOUS CONTROL OF SKELETAL MUSCLES
The fibers (axons) in the medulla oblongata decussate near their inferior ends. What does this mean? What does this mean for a person who suffers a stroke?
- 1. Ducussate means cross-over
- 2. It means that the right side of the brain controls the skeletal muscles on the left side of the body and vice-versa.
- 3. A stroke on the right side of the brain would cause paralysis on the left side of the body.
Olives are part of the Medulla Oblongata. What actions are controlled by olives?
Olives are involved with balance, coordination, and modulation of sound from the inner ear.
Compare the connections between parts of the brain by the anterior portion and the posterior portion of the pons.
- 1. Nuclei in the anterior portion relay information between the cerebrum to cerebellum.
- 2. Nuclei in the posterior portion relay information between the medulla oblongata and the cerebrum.
Name two functional centers found in the pons. What actions do each control?
- 1. Pontine sleep center
- 2. Respiratory center
- 2. Pontine sleep center and respiratory center work with the medulla oblongata to control the rate and depth of breathing.
Why is the midbrain also called the mesencephalon?
The mesencephalon stays the same in an embryo through adulthood. Where as the pons and Medulla oblongata are formed into it.
The tectum is also knows as the ____ of the midbrain. It contains 4 sensory nuclei called _______.
- 1. Roof
- 2. Corpora Quadrigemina. (think about Quad is also 4.)
Contrast the functions of the superior colliculi and the inferior colliculi. What are life experiences that show the function of each? (They are in the Midbrain.)
- 1. Superior colliculi- are involved with VISUAL reflexes and receive input mostly from the eyes. (If an object strikes the windsheild of your car and you reflexively duck, this is an action of the superior colliculi)
- 2. Inferior colliculi- are involved in HEARING. (being startled by a loud sound is an action of the inferior colliculi)
- 3. Remember border collie (Lassie) could see and hear.......
The tegmentum is also knows as the ___ of the midbrain.
Name the two ascending tracts in the tegmentum (floor of midbrain) and tell what kind of information they carry.
- 1. Spinal Lemniscus
- 2. Medial Leminiscus
- 3. The Spinal Lemniscus and Medial Leminiscus both lead sensory information to the thalamus.
- 4. Smell the Lemons--sensory
Why are the red nuclei "red" in the midbrain? What actions are they involved with?
- 1. They are red due to the abundant blood supply (highly vascular area)
- 2. They are involved with the uncounscious regulation and coordination of motor activities. "posture control."
- 3. Be proud and have good posture because you ate lots of red meat..:)
What is the orientation of the axons (fibers) in the cerebral peduncles and what action do they control in the Midbrain?
- 1. They are descending tracts in the Midbrain.
- 2. They are involved with the voluntary movement of skeletal muscles.
- 3. As uncles get older they descend but have voluntary movement of their skeletal muscles.
How do substantia nigra function in muscle movement in the Midbrain?
- 1. They are nuclei that are involved with maintaining muscle tone and in coordinating movements.
- 2. Black have great muscle tone and are very coordinated movements.
What cycles are controlled by the reticular activating system in the Midbrain?
- 1. The consciousness and awake/sleep cycle.
- 2. activate consciousness....activate sleep......
What actions can cause consciousness becasue of axons leading to the reticular activating system for the facial area in the midbrain?
- 1. Cool wash-cloth or a "slap" to the face may help make a drowsy person more alert.
- 2. Opening a window while driving may help to maintain wakefullness.
What is the relationship of the function(s) of the reticular activating system and the situation of a person being in a coma? (Midbrain)
Damage to the reticular activating system can result in permanent unconsciousness (coma)
What is connected by the superior peduncle of the cerebellum? The Middle peduncle? The inferior peduncle?
- 1. Superior- peduncles connect the cerebellum to the midbrain.
- 2. Middle- peduncles connect the cerebellum to the pons.
- 3. Inferior- peduncles connect the cerebellum to the medulla oblongata.
How does the cerebellum work when a person makes an intended movement to perform an activity?
The peduncles are communication pathways from the cerebellum to the rest of the CNS involved in making intended movements and then making corrections to those movements as needed.
Compare the cortex to the medulla oblongata of the cerebellum as far as location and composition.
- 1. Cortex is on the outside and is gray matter.
- 2. Medulla Oblongata is inside with white matter.
Define folia and arbor vitae of the cerebellum.
- 1. Folia- are the ridges of the cerebellum. (folding paper brings ridges)
- 2. Arbor Vitae- Is the white matter in the cerebellum. It means "branching like a tree." (Arbor Day-tree)
What function(s) are performed by the flocculonodular lobe of the cerebellum? The vermis? The lateral hemispheres?
- 1. Flocculonodular Lobe- Controls balance and eye movements. (flo needs balance and eye movements to check on her tables).
- 2. Vermis- controls posture, locomotion, and adjusts fine motor control. (wormis--does the locomotion)
- 3. Lateral Hemispheres- involved with planning, practicing, and learning complex movements. (to climb the Ladder you must plan, practice and learn)
What effect does alcohol have on the function(s) of the cerebellum? What is ataxia? What other factors may cause ataxia besides alcohol.
- 1. It affects the balance function of the cerebellum.
- 2. Ataxia- a drunken "stagger" or the inability to walk a straight line. (Need A-taxi when drunk.)
- 3. A blow to the head, a tumor or stroke.
Another name for the diencephalon is the _____.
What kinds of sensory input goes to the thalamus? What is meant by the thalamus being a "sensory filter?"
- 1. Most sensory input exept the sense of smell.
- 2. Because most sensory input goes to it. ?????
After the sensory information enters the thalamus, it is sent to certain parts of the cerebrum for what purpose?
What other kinds of emotions are centered in the thalamus? How does the thalamus work for the betterment of our lives?
- 1. Strong emotions like fear and rage.
- 2. It decides whether the sensation is pleasant or unpleasant.
What is the relationship of our need to have our eyes open in order to maintain our balance and the function of the subthalmic nuclei? (in the Subthalamus)
They play major roles in the control of skeletal muscles.
Explain the relationship of the habernular nuclei and the responses that your body would make to the smell of good food cooking? What about the smell of rotting food? (in the Epithalamus)
- 1. The Habernular Nuclei are involved with te sense of small and the emotional and instictive responses to odors.
- 2. You would like the smell of good food and dislike the smell of rotting food.
State the two functions of the pineal gland.
- 1. puberty
- 2. sleep-wake cycle
- 3. Pineal gland-penis in puberty. I may get waken up by the penis in sex.
What is the relationship of the mammillary bodies to the detection of odor? (in the Hypothalamus)
Like the habernular nuclei in the Epithalamus, it has the emotional response to odor. So it could be an odor you like and is pleasant, or an odor you dislike that would make it unpleasant.
How does the infundibulum function in relation to neurohormones made in the hypothalamus?
- 1. Infundibulum- is a funnel-like connecting part (stalk) that connects the pituitary gland to the brain. (Funnel-Fun)
- 2. Neurohormones- made in the hypothalamus drain through this structure to the posterior pituitary. (Neurohormones go to the pit....??)
State the origin of afferent neurons coming from visceral organs to the hypothalamus. Describe an application of this connection.
- 1. Stomach, heart, liver,ect....
- 2. Digestive problems can influence they hypothalamus. ?????
Do the same for taste receptors, the limbic system, external reproductive organs, and mood areas of the prefrontal cortex and cerebrum in they hypothalamus.
- 1. Taste receptors- Food, Food stimulates the digestive process.
- 2. The Limbic System- related to smell, Mothers and maybe , some fathers too, can identify their young by smell.
- 3. Specific Cutaneous- skins sensor, areas such as tin the nipples and the external genitalia (stimulation causes sexual responses.)
- 4. The prefrontal cortex and cerebrum- Mood, certain events can lead up to being in a good or bad mood.
You need to remember that there (is; is not) afferent input into the hypothalamus from skeletal muscles. AFFERENT NEURONS
State the destination of efferent neurons going out from the hypothalamus to the autonomic nerve system. Describe an application.
The Autonomic Nerve System- Smooth muscles and glands. Emotions affect body organs.
Do the same for the posterior pituitary, trigeminal and facial nerves, and motro nerves that cause actions like shivering in the EFFERENT NEURONS of the hypothalamus.
- 1. Posterior Portion of the Pituitary gland- hormone release.
- 2. Trigeminal and Facial Nerves- cranial nerve nuclei that control head muscles and swallowing muscles, facial expressions accompany physiological events.
- 3. Motor Neurons- cause shivering, also swallowing, grooming behavior, nurturing movements, sexual activity.
Use the table 13.3 on page 447 for further information about functions of they hypothalamus.
Lets just hope its not on the test... Lots of stuff.
What is the brain size (cerebral area) related to?
What is a gyri? What do they increase? in the cerebrum.
- 1. Gyri- folds of the cerebrum. (gyro folds over)
- 2. They increase the surface area of the cerebral surface.
The outer part of the cerebrum is gray matter. What is the function of gray matter in this area?
What is sulci in the cerebrum?
The grooves between the gyri (which is the folds of the cerebrum).
What structure divides the cerebrum into right and left halves?
The Longitudinal Fissure. (to cut the brain in two would be a LONG ways.)
What is the major functions of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum? Parietal lobe? Occipital lobe? Temporal lobe?
- 1. Frontal Lobe- Contains centers for voluntary motor function, motivation, aggression, and the sense of smell and mood.
- 2. Parietal Lobe- has centers for reception and evaluation of sensory infromation (except for smell, hearing, and vision)
- 3. Occipial Lobe- has sites for recognition and inegration of visual input.
- 4. Temporal Lobe- receives and evaluates input for smell and hearing as well as memory.
What is the psychic cortex? What is its function? (Cerebral Lobes)
- 1. The anterior and inferior portions of the temporal lobe.
- 2. It is used for abstract (hard to understand) thought and judgment. (use thought and judgment before you see the psychic, think about it in your temporal lobe).
What is insula in the cerebral lobes?
It is the fifth lobe found within the lateral fissure (lateral fissure separates teh emporal lobe from the rest of the brain).
What is the term for collections of nerve cell bodies and dendrites found within the white matter in the cerebral medulla of the cerebrum? These are sometimes called "cerebral ganglia." Is this a correct term for them?
- 1. Nuclei (????)
- 2. I have no idea.....(I don't see the word in the back of the book)
What is the purpose of the white matter found in the cerebral medulla of the cerebrum?
It is a connection area. It connects cerebral cortex to other cortex areas as well as to other parts of the CNS.
What do association fibers found in the cerebrum connect? Commissural fibers? Projection fibers?
- 1. Association Fibers- connect areas of the cerebral corex within the SAME hemisphere. (Stay within your associates)
- 2. Commissural Fibers- connect one cerebral hemisphere to another "Corpus Callosum". (major connection). (Commute to the other side or to the Collasium)
- 3. Projection Fibers- connect the cerebrum to other parts of the brain and spinal cord. (project everywhere)
What is the basal nuclei? Another name for the basal nuclei is....
- 1. Basal Nuclei- are involved in the control of motor functions. (to catch the bass I need a motor in my boat.)
- 2. Another name is the CORPUS STRIATUM. (Corp-Base)
What parts of the brain make up the limbic system?
The Cerebrum and Diencephalon (the thalamus, subthalamus, epithalamus, and hypothalmus)
How are the functions of the limbic system related to actions needed for survival?
- 1. Memory
- 2. Reproduction
- 3. Nutrition
What are meninges and what is their purpose?
- 1. Meninges- are membranes.
- 2. Their purpose is to surround and protect the spinal cord and brain.
What is the location of the Falx cerebri? Tentorium cerebella? Falx cerebelli? (Meninges) (The 3 Dura Mater folds)
- 1. Falx Cerebri- located between the 2 cerebral hemispheres in the longitudinal fissure. (bri-bra 2 boobs)
- 2. Tentorium Cerebelli- Located between the cerebrum and cerebellum. (Tent between both C's)
- 3. Falx Cerebelli- Located between the 2 cerebellar hemispheres. (belli is a bellar)
What are dural venous sinuses and what is their function? (Meninges)
- 1. Dural Venous Sinuses- the dura mater separates at the bases of the 3 dural folds (Falx cerebri, Tentorium Cerebelli, and Falx cerebelli) it forms the Dural Venous Sinuses. (hole)
- 2. Collect blood and Cerebral Spinal Fluid that are returning from the brain (they are located on the superior cerebral surface).
Blood and Cerebral Spinal Fluid are both taken back to the circulatory system where they enter what major blood vessel? (Meninges)
Superior Vena Cava (The Superior Vein Cave)
What is the order of meninges between the cranial bone and the brain?
- 1. Dura Mater
- 2. Subdural Space
- 3. Arachnoid Mater
- 4. Subarachnoid Space
- 5. Pia Mater
Where is the Subdural Space and what is found within it? Subarachnoic Space? (Meninges)
- 1. Subdural Space- Is located between the Dura Mater and the Arachnoic Mater, it contains Serous fluid.
- 2. Subarachnoic Space- is located between the Arachnoic Mater and the Pia Mater, it contains Cerebral Spinal Fluid and blood vessels.
What are brain ventricles? How many are there?
- 1. Brain Ventricles- are large cavitites in the cerebrum and other areas.
- 2. There are four different ones.
What is the location of the lateral ventricles? The third ventricle? The fourth ventricle? (Brain Ventricles)
- 1. Lateral Ventricle- (which are the 1st and 2nd ventricle) are found in the left and right cerebral himispheres.
- 2. Third Ventricle- is located in the center of the diencephalon. (Thamalus, subthamalus, ect.)
- 3. Fourth Ventricle- is located above the medulla oblongata at the base of the cerebellum.
What is the connection called that connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle? What is the connection called that connects the 3rd and 4th ventricles together? (Brain Ventricles)
- 1. Foramina of Monro (hole of monroe-3rd step of the latter, you will fall)
- 2. Aqueduct of Sylvius (we have 3 or 4 Sylvia TV's)
What 2 structures does the 4th ventricle connect to? (Brain Ventricles)
Is located above the Medulla Oblongata and tot he base of the cerebellum.
What are the three puposes of cerebrospinal fluid?
- 1. Bathes the brain and spinal cord
- 2. Is a protective Cushion
- 3. Provides some nutrients to both structures.
Where is most of the cerebrospinal fluid formed? Where is the rest formed?
- 1. 80-90% is produces by Ependymal Cells found in the Lateral Ventricles (1st and 2nd Ventricles)
- 2. The rest is formed in the 3rd and 4th ventricles.
Describe the composition of the choroid plexus.
- 1. Ependymal Cells
- 2. Support Tissue
- 3. Associated blood vessels
Name the 3 processes that form cerebrospinal fluid. (Choroid Plexus)
- 1. Diffusion
- 2. Facilitated Diffusion
- 3. Active Transport
How is the blood brain barrier related to the formation of cerebrospinal fluid? (Choroid Plexus)
It controls the chemistry of the Cerebrospinal Fluid.
Describe the locations where cerebrospinal fluid circulates, volume differences and its time of replacement.
- 1. located in the ventricles, the subarachnoic space and the central canal.
- 2. 23 ML is found in the ventricles, and 117ML is found in the subarachnoid space and central canal (total of 140ML)
- 3. It is replaced 3 times/24hours
What actions aid in the movement of cerebrospinal fluid?
Body movement and blood pressure gradients.
How much blood is channeled toward the brain?
15-20% of blood pumped by the heart is channeled to the brain.
What nutrients are circulated to the brain and by what process do they enter the brain? (Blood supply to the brain)
- 1. Glucose and oxygen
- 2. Mediated Transport (the best medicine is oxygen)
How many blood pathways take blood toward the brain? What happens if one of the pathways gets blocked? (Arteries of the brain)
- 1. 4 pathways
- 2. If one gets blocked it uses another pathway.
What is the value of the circle of Willis to brain circulation? What arteries make up the circle of Willis?
- 1. It ensures that adequate blood reaches each part of the brain.
- 2. Just remember the Basilar Artery. (Willis likes to catch Bass then looks at their arteries)
How are cranial nerves designated?
By Roman Numerals
What are the four functions carried by some or all of the cranial nerves?
- 1. Sensory function
- 2. Motor function
- 3. Parasympathetic function
- 4. Proprioception
The olfactory nerve is sensory for ____.
The optic nerve is sensory for ____.
What is the motor function of the oculomotor nerve? What are the parasympathetic functions of the oculomotor nerve involving the eye.
- 1. Motor for 4 of the 6 muscles that move the eyeball.
- 2. Parasympathetic- Pupil size.
What is the motor function of the trochlear nerve?
Motor- One of 6 muscles that control the eye movement.
Describe the sensory function of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve.
Sensory- For the scalp, forehead, nose, upper eyelid, and cornea.
Describe the sensory function of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve.
Sensory- Palate, upper jaw, upper teeth, and gums.
Describe the function of the motor axons found in the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve.
Motor- Mouth muscles for mastication (chewing)
How are the maxillary and mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve important in dentistry?
Anesthetics are used to stop pain impulses from the teeth.
How is the proprioceptive function of the trigeminal nerve important in obtaining food?
Proprioceptive- For information about body position such as the temporomandibular joint, which is involved with the jaw movments (knowing how wide to open the mouth to receive food, ect)
What is the motor function of the abducens nerve?
Motor for 1 of the 6 eye muscles needed to move the eyeball
Explain the sensory function of the facial nerve. Explain the motor and proprioceptive functions. Explain the parasympathetic functions fo the facial nerve.
- 1. Sensory for taste from the anterior (tip) 2/3 of tongue, ande from some of the external ear and palate.
- 2. Motor and Proprioceptive- Muscles needed for facial expression, and the muscles of the throat.
- 3. Parasympathetic- for the sumandibular and sublingual salivary glands, lacrimal gland, and glands of the nasal cavity and palate.
Describe the sensory furnctions of the vestibulocochlear nerve?
Sensory for hearing and balance
Explain the sensory functions of the glossopharyngeal nerve. The motor and proprioceptive functions. Explain the papasympathetic functions of the glossopharyngeal nerve.
- 1. Sensory- for taste from posterior 1/3 of the tongue, from the pharyx, the palatine tonsils, the middle ear, the carotid sinus and the carotid body
- 2. Motor and Proprioception- for the pharyngeal muscles.
- 3. Parasympathetic- for the parotid salivary gland, and for glands form the posterior 1/3 of the tongue.
Explain the sensory functions of the vagus nerve. The motor and proprioceptive functions. Explain the parasympathetic function of the vagus nerve.
- 1. Sensory- for the inferior pharynx, the larynx, and the thoracic and abdominal organs; also for the sense of taste from posterior tonge.
- 2. Motor and Proprioception- for the soft palate, the phyarynx, the production of sound, and the extrinsic tongue muscles.
- 3. Parasympathetic- for the thoracic and abdominal viscera. (especially digestive organs).
Explain the motor and proprioceptive functions of the accessory nerve.
Motor and Proprioception- for the soft palate, and the sternocleidomastoid, and trapezius muscles.
Explain the motor and proprioceptive functions of the hypoglassal nerve.
Motor and Proprioception- for the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles and some of the throat muscles.