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what are NPN compounds?
- 3.uric acid
- 6.amino acids
Do NPN compounds contain nitrogen?
Are NPN compounds proteins?
Which NPN compounds are waste?
- 3.uric acid
Which NPN compounds are building blocks?
creatine - amino acids
What is urea the breakdown product of?
protein makes ammonia into urea
Where is urea formed and from what?
urea is formed in the liver. when the liver breaks down proteins or amino acids and ammonia the kidneys transfers the urea from the blood to urine
What does BUN stand for?
Blood urea nitrogen
What 2 things affect serum BUN?
- 1.amount of protein in urine
- 2.urine volume
What causes increased BUN?
- 2.cardiac failure
- 3.diabetes mellitus
Renal cause for increaseed BUN
- 1.polycystic kidney disease
post-renal cause for increased BUN
- 1.obstruction of lower urinary tract
- 2.kidney stones
- 3.enlarged prostate
What is azotemia?
increased NPNs in the blood (unusually high amounts of nitrogen waste products in bloodstream)
What is the function of creatine and phosphocreatine?
they are high energy storage in the brain and muscle
What does creatine and phosphocreatine break down into?
Where does creatine and phosphocreatine break down?
in the muscle
When is serum creatinine increased?
- 1.muscle destruction
- 2.kidney disease
What are two test to assess kidney function?
What is uric acid the breakdown product of ?
- nucleic acid aka
- nucleoproteins or purines
Where is uric acid formed ?
in the liver
Which food are high in purines
- 4.organ meats- liver, kidney
- 5.coffee, caffeine, cocoa
When is uric acid increased in the serum (bloodstream)?
- 1.gout-painful arthritis
- 2.cell turnover disease
What is gout?
hyperuricemia (high uric acid in the blood)uric acid crystal deposit in joint especially in the big toe
Where is ammonia made?
- 1.bacteria in the intestine
- 2.breakdown of protein in the liver
- 3.kidney tubules
Failure of which organ would cause increased serum ammonia?
What are amino acids?
the building blocks of protein
What are the different plasma proteins and where are each made?
- 1.albumin-in the liver
- 2.fibrinogen- in the liver
- 3.alpha-globulins-in the liver
- 4.beta-globulins-in the liver
- 5.gamma-globulins-RES systems(reticuloendothelial system)
What are protein functions?
- 1.storage for amino acids (liver uses amino acids)
- 2.used for energy
- 3.transports things through the bloodstream
What is the function of each of the following protein fractions?
55% of protein
- 1.albumin-maintaining normal blood volume
- 2.fibrinogen-necessary for clotting
- 3.gamma-globulins- are antibodies in response to MMR
What does TSP stand for?
total serum protein
What does TSP measure?
it measures the sum of all albumin and all globulins
What causes increased TSP?
- 2.multiple myeloma (cancer of tissue that makes gamma globins)
What causes decreased TSP?
- 1.kidney disease-leaks proteins
- 2.liver disease
What does A/G ratio stand for?
albumin divided by globulins
What is a normal A/G ratio results?
In which diseases is the A/G ratio decreased?
- 1. liver disease
- 2.kidney disease
- 3.multiple myeloma
What is electrophoresis?
used to separate proteins into specific fractions by the movement of charged particles in an electric field