A/P Chapter 14
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What are Somatic Senses and what is an example of this sense?
- 1. Somatic Senses (Body)- are general senses that provide sensory information about the body and the environment.
- 2. Someone touch your arm and you detecting that touch is an example.
What are Visceral Senses and what is an example of this sense?
- 1. Visceral Senses (Organ)- Senses are general senses that provide information about various internal organs.
- 2. Abdominal pain of appendicitis is an example) (ate too much cereal)
What are special senses? What are examples of special senses?
- 1. Special senses- senses are senses that are more specialized and are localized to specific parts of the body.
- 2. The senses of sight, taste, hearing, smell, and balance are specialized senses)
What occurs to a stimulus in order to be interpreted in the cerebral cortex? (Senses)
- 1. A stimulus is detected by a sensory receptor and converted into an action potential.
- 2. A nerve tract will carry the action potential to the cerebral cortex or another possible area for translation.
Describe what mechanoreceptors respond to and know some examples. (Kinds of sensory receptors)
- 1. Mechanoreceptors- respond to mechanical stimuli
- 2. examples are: touch, pressure, proprioception, hearing, and balance. (Think of a robot: the touch, pressure...ect... is mechanical)
Describe what chemoreceptors respond to. What are two areas that have chemoreceptors? (Sensory Receptors)
- 1. Detect the presence of chemicals.
- 2. Tongue and nasal cavity. (breath in and taste chemicals)
Describe what thermoreceptors respond to. Photoreceptors. (Sensory receptors)
- 1. Thermoreceptors- detect heat
- 2. Photoreceptors- detect light-eyes
Describe the action of nociceptors. What stimuli cause pain? (Sensory Receptors)
- 1. Nociceptors- respond to painful stimuli
- 2. Mechanical, chemical, or thermal)
Describe the location of exteroreceptors and what do they provide? (Sensory Receptors)
- 1. Associated with the skin
- 2. They provide information about the external environment. ( I have a lot of extra skin :))
Describe the location of visceroreceptors and list an example. (Sensory Receptors)
- 1. are associated with the viscera (soft internal organs of the body...like abdomen).
- 2. The pain of appendicitis comes from stimulation of visceroreceptors. ( I need a video to see my appendicitis)
What do proprioceptors respond to and how do they aid the body? (Sensory Receptors)
- 1. Are associated with joints and tendons, etc.
- 2. To aid the balance and localization of body parts. (Hopefully my prop in the play will balance)
Describe the difference between primary and secondary receptors. What are examples of each kind of receptor. (Sensory Receptors)
- 1. Primary Receptors- have AXONS that conduct action potentials in response to the receptor potential.
- 2. Secondary Receptors- have NO axons and the receptor potentials cause the release of neurotransmitters.
Define accommodation. (Sensory Receptors)
Is a decreased sensitivity of receptors to stimuli. (Gets used to the smell).
What is a sensory nerve tract and how are they named?
- 1. Sensory Nerve Tract- is a sensory pathway that transmits action potentials from the periphery (outside) to various parts of the brain. (Sensory-sensory, nerve-nerve, tract-pathway)
- 2. Names of most ascending pathways (tracts) indicate their ORIGIN AND TERMINATION.
What kinds of sensory information is carried by the lateral spinothalamic tract? What kinds of sensory information is carried by the anterior spinothalmic tract?
- 1. The Lateral Spinothalamic tract- carries information about pain and temperature.
- 2. Anterior Spinothalmic Tract- Carries sensations of light touch, pressure, tickle, and itch. ( I would like to tickle the spin of a ant)
Where is the cross-over of the spinothalmic tract? What does this mean as far as the detection of sensation and the side of the brain involved?
- 1. In the spinal cord
- 2. It means that sensations from one side of the body cross-over to the opposite side of the spinal cord and travel up to the brain on the other side.
- 3. Sensation fromt he left side is sent to the right half of the brain and vice-versa.
If the spinothalmic tract on the right side of the spinal cord is injured or has a growth (lesion) on it, what would the person experience?
1. There would be a loss of sensation on the left side of the body BELOW the level of injury.
What would happen if there is an injury to or a lesion on the left side spinothalmic tract?
There would be a loss of sensation on the rightr side of the body BELOW the level of injury.
Why is the loss of sensation below the level of injury?
I don't know!!!! Because....
What is the beginning and end of a primary neuron?
Beginning at the Periphery (outside) and ends in the posterior horn or the spinal cord.
What is the beginning and end of a secondary neuron?
- Beginning in the spinal cord, and ending in the thalamus.
What is the beginning and end of a tertiary neuron?
Beginning in the Thalamus, and ending in the somatic sensory cortex of the cerebrum.
What sensations are carried by the dorsal-column/medial-lemniscal tract?
- 1. Two-point discrimination
- 2. Proprioception
- 3. Pressure
- 4. Vibration.
What is the difference about the cross-over in the dorsal-column/medial-lemniscal tract as compared to the spinothamic tract?
1. Spinothamic tract cross over in the spinal cord, Dorsal-column/medial-lemniscal tract do not cross over in the spinal cord.
Describe the difference between the fasciculus gracilis and the fasciculus cuneatus as far as from where they carry sensory impulses from.
- 1. Fasciculus Gracilis- carry sensations from nerves below the midthorax (abdominal organs, pelvis, legs)
- 2. Fasciculus Cuneatus- carries impulses from nerves above the midthorax. (heart, lungs, arms, head)
Where do both of the fasciculus tracts terminate? (The gracilis and cuneatus)
In the Medulla Oblongata
Where does the cross-over occur in the dorsal-column/medial-lemniscal tract?
Secondary neurons of both tracts cross-over in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The tertiary neuron terminates in the ___ for interpretation of the stimuli.
Cerebrum (top of brain)
What is the location of the general sensory area in the cerebrum?
Postcentral Gyrus of the Cerebrum. (my general senses want a Gyro)
What kinds of sensory information is interpreted in the general sensory area.
- 1. Pain
- 2. Pressure
- 3. Temperature
What is an upside down homunculus? What is the amount of space in the sensory homunculus related to?
- 1. The pattern of the somatic sensory cortex is arranged in the form of an upside down homunculus. (minature human)
- 2. Number of sensory receptors.
In what areas of the cerebrum are other senses like taste, hearing, and eyesight interpreted?
I don't know
What is projection and give an example.
- 1. occurs when the brain refers a cutaneous sensation to the superficial site at which the stimulus interacts with sensory receptors.
- 2. If you hit your thumb with a hammer, the pain will be felt in the thumb even though it is being interpreted in the cerebrum.
What is the purpose of association areas of the cerebrum?
1. allow for comparison of present sensory information to past experiences... Such as the face that you see...it is someone you know?
The ability of the body to make a voluntary movement depends first on initiation. What does this mean?
Decision on whether to move or not.
What other parts of the brain are involved with the cerebrum in the planning, coordination, and execution of movements.
The cerebral cortex interacts with the basal nuclei and cerebellum.
What is the location of the primary motor cortex in the cerebrum?
Anterior to the Central Gyrus (Precentral Gyrus)
The motor homunculus has various amounts of space allotted for what?
I can't find it......
What is the job of the cerebral premotor area?
- 1. Is a staging area in which motor functions are organized before they are initiated in the motor cortex.
- 2. Example: taking a step requires an organization of muscles in order to take the step.
What is the job of the cerebral prefrontal area?
It provides motivation and foresight to plan and initiate movements.
How are motor nerve tracts named?
Based on their orgin and termination.
What kinds of actions are controlled by the direct or pyramidal motor nerve tracts?
Direct (pyramidal) motor nerve tracts are for maintenance of muscle tone and for speed and precision of skilled movements.
Name two motor nerve tracts that are direct or pyramidal motor nerve tracts?
- 1. Lateral Cortiscospinal
- 2. Anterior Corticospinal
What kinds of actions are controlled by the indirect or (extrapyramidal) motor nerve tracts?
Maintain control of unconscious movements needed for coordination.
Name the 4 motor nerve tracts that are indirect or extrapyramidal motor nerve tracts.
- 1. Tectospinal
- 2. Vestibulospinal
- 3. Rubrospinal
- 4. Recticulospinal
Why is the cerebellum referred to as a comparator?
The cerebellum compares the intended movement with the actual movements.
How does Wernicke's area work in the action of saying something?
It is for understanding and formulating coherent speech. (In the back of the brain, not a motor function)
How does Broca's area work in the action of saying something?
Is involved with making the movments necessary for speech. (in the front of the brain--motor)
What is aphasia?
Aphasia- the inability to speek and could occur with damage to Broca's area.
Both Wernicke's and Broca's areas are in what hemisphere of the brain?
Both are in the left cerebral hemisphere in the temporal lobe area.
What is the purpose of the corpus callosum?
Sharing of sensory information between the hemispheres (???)
What are the actions associated with the left half of the brain? Right half?
- 1. Left brain- associated with the ability to do math and make speeches.
- 2. Right brain- is involved with spatial perception (the ability to paint a watercolor landscape picture, or draw a figure, etc., the recognition of faces and muscial abilities.) (I'm right brain)
What are the names for the brain waves?
- 1. Alpha
- 2. Beta
- 3. Theta
- 4. Delta
Of what use are EEG's?
To diagnose neurological disorders.
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