Card Set Information
what exactly is a fruit?
what are the two major categories of dry fruit?
dehiscent and indehiscent
what is a dehiscent dry fruit?
open to release their seeds along definite lines
what is indehiscent dry fruit?
doesn't open to release seeds must grow through pericarp
What is grain?
caryopsis: single seed is entirely fused with the pericarp
what is achenes?
the single seed is only attached to the pericarp at one point
what is a nut?
one seed at maturity with a hard sclerifed pericarp
what is a samara?
a winged achene
what is a follicle?
split along one side to release seeds from one carpel
what is a legume?
split along two sides to realse seeds
what is a capsules?
split along three or more sides or points
what is a septicidal capsule?
yucca agave. split occures along septum
what is a loculicidal capsule?
lily; split occurs in locule
what is a poricidal capsule?
poppy; pores occur at the top of the fruit(acts like a saltshaker)
what is a fleshy fruit?
at maturity the pericarp consists of sugary, starchy, or fatty parenchyma
what is a simple fruit?
develop from a flower with one pistil
what is a compound fruit?
collection of fruits that tend to hold as a single. may be fleshy or dry
what is a berry?
entire pericarp is fleshy may have one to many carpels and one to many seeds
what is pepo?
berry with a hard inseparable rind. Example:cucumber
what is hesperidium?
berry with leathery rind juice sacs develop in locules Citus family
what is a drupe?
a fleshy fruit with a papery or cartilaginous endocarp and a fleshy mesocarp example: apple or pear
what is a aggregate fruit?
separate carpels pistils of one flower that stay together. many follicles example; strawberrys, magnolia
what is multiple fruit?
pineapple, many inferior ovaries and the inflorescence axis are edible
what is a cotyledons in seeds?
seed leaves pull nutrition from endosperm from embryo
what is a radicle?
what is a plumule?
the first true leaves
what is hilum?
scar on the seed where the funiculus abscised, where the ovule was attached to the ovary wall
what is the micropyle?
pore located next to hilum, where water is taken up in some seeds
what is a seed coat?
protects the seed allow it to stay dormant for long periods of time
what is the embryo of seeds?
cotyledons, radicle, plumule
what are the two types of seeds?
albuminous seeds and exalbuminous seeds
what is an albuminous seeds?
contain endosperm at maturity ie;corn castor bean
what is an exalbuminous seed?
little or no endosperm at maturity. ie; legumes cacti, and orchids
what is gemination?
in order to germinate domancy must be broken
what is scarification?
nicking or breaking seed coat for imbibation to occur
what is after-ripening?
embryo needs further ripening after fruit has fallen
what is stratification?
cold temperature treatment is required for germination
what is environmental regulation?
seeds need specific envionmental conditions to germinate; example water, oxygen, and light or absence of light
what are the four ways domancy may be broken?
1.scarification 2. after-ripening 3. stratification 4. environmental regulation