A&P lecture midterm

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A&P lecture midterm
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2010-11-29 01:22:57
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A&P lecture midterm
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  1. Intestines would be found in what region?
    Left iliac
  2. the parietal pleural would represent...
    a serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity
  3. lungs are located in three cavities...what are they?
    pleural, ventral, and thoracic
  4. Put molecules, atoms, organs, cells, and and tissues in order from simplest to most complex
    Atoms, Molecules, Cells, Tissues, Organs
  5. the stomach is located in what cavity?
    Left upper
  6. Subdivisions of anatomy include:
    Gross, Regional, Systemic, and Surface
  7. The term pollex refers to
    the thumb
  8. The dorsal body cavity is the site of the brain
  9. Sagittal
    vertical dividing left and right
  10. Frontal
    vertical, dividing anterior and posterior
  11. The dorsal cavity protects the nervous system
  12. Ribosomal RNA forms part of the protein systhesis site in the
    cytoplasm
  13. Tranfer RNA act as “interpreter” molecules that...
    recognize specific amino acids and nucleotide base sequences
  14. Synthetase enzymes attach the correct amino acid to...
    its transfer RNA
  15. ATP provides the energy needed for
    synthesis reactions
  16. Messenger RNA is found in
    the cytoplasm
  17. Messenger RNA specifies
    the exact sequence of amino acids of the protein to be made
  18. Ribosomal RNA may be attached to the ____or scattered in the ____________
    ER, cytoplasm
  19. Chromosomes decoil to form chromatin in what phase?
    telophase
  20. Chromosomal cetromeres split and chromosomes migrate to oppisite ends of the cell in what phase?
    anaphase
  21. Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disintegrate in what phase?
    late prophase
  22. Chromosomes align on the spindle equator in what phase?
    metaphase
  23. Centrioles move to oppisite ends of the cell in what phase?
    early prophase
  24. ER plays a role in the synthesis of steroid-based hormones and proteins
  25. the actual site of protein synthesis
    Ribosomes
  26. Hollow cytoskeletal elements that act as organizers for the cytoskeleton are called
    microtubules
  27. Nucleoli are dense spherical bodies in the nucleus that are the synthesis site for
    ribosomal RNA
  28. Nucleus houses
    DNA and RNA
  29. Tight junctions help prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cells
  30. a type of anchoring junction
    Desmosomes
  31. ____ junctions are communicators and are present in electrically excitable tissues
    Gap
  32. ______ are abundant in tissues subjected to great mechanical stress
    Desmosomes
  33. Both potassium and sodium ions can “leak” through the cell membrane due to diffusion
  34. In certain kinds of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in the smooth ER
  35. The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the “factory” site for protein formation is
    tRNA
  36. The plasma membrane is
    the phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell
  37. The plasma membrane is selectively permeable
  38. The plasma membrane acts as a site of cell-to-cell interaction and recognition
  39. finger-like projections that increase the absorbing surface of cells
    Microvilli
  40. If cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable the cells will
    lose water and shrink
  41. Once solid material is phagocytized and taken into a vacuole a lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid material
  42. Riboswitches are
    folded RNA’s that act as switches to turn protein synthesis on or off in response to changes in the enviroment
  43. Plasma membrane protein transport molecules through the membrane
  44. mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA play a role in
    protein synthesis
  45. Mitosis produces
    nucleus replication
  46. Centrioles consist of
    microtubules arranged to form a hollow tube
  47. Melanin is an
    inclusion not an organelle
  48. Recptor-mediated endocytosis is the main mechanism for the movement of most macromolecules by body cells
  49. Passive membrane transport processes include
    movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
  50. Enzymes called caspases destroy the cell’s DNA and cytoskeleton, producing a quick death of the cell
  51. Mitochondria contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function
  52. Peroxisomes are able to detoxify substances by
    enzymatic action
  53. DNA replication takes place during
    interphase of the cell cycle
  54. In the maintenance of the cell resting membrane potential extracellular sodium levels are high
  55. A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms
  56. Phosphlipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules
  57. Cyclic AMP and calcium may be second messengers
  58. The main component of the cytosol is
    water
  59. Lysosomes contain acid hydrolases that are potentially dangerous to the cell
  60. The endomembrane system is an interactive system of organelles whose membranes are physically or functionally connected
  61. The functions of centrioles include
    organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division
  62. A gene can best be defined as
    a segment of DNA that carriers the instructions for one polypeptide chain
  63. Extracellular matrix is the most abundant extracellular material
  64. Crenation is likely to occur in blood cells in
    a hypertonic solution
  65. Some hormones enter cells via
    receptor-mediated endocytosis
  66. Keratinocytes are the most abundant cells of the
    epidermis
  67. Keratin is the protein found in the epidermis that is responsible for
    toughening the skin
  68. Cells plus a disc-like sensory nerve ending that functions as a sensory receptor for touch
    Merkel disc
  69. Epidermal dendritic cells are skin macrophages that help activate the
    immune system
  70. Cornified keratinocytes are cell remnants of the
    stratum corneum
  71. Stratum corneum is the layer of the epidermis where the cells are
    considered protective but not viable
  72. The glands that serve an important function in thermoregulation are the
    sudoriferous glands
  73. The layer that contains the mitotic viable cells of the epidermis is the
    Stratum basale
  74. Hair that lacks pigment and is often called “immature hair” is
    vellus
  75. Erythemia may indicate
    embarrassment, fever, hypertension, inflammation, or allergy
  76. Pallor may indicate
    fear, anger, anemia, or low blood pressure
  77. Jaundice usually indicates
    a liver disorder
  78. Addison’s disease gives the apearance of
    a permanent tan; bronzing
  79. Cyanosis gives
    a blueish color in light skinned individuals
  80. Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from
    metastasizing
  81. Porphyria is an inherited condition that affects
    the heme pathway; it leaves the skin scarredand gums degenerated, and may have led to the folklore about vampires
  82. A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forarm in this order
    Corneum, Granulosum, Spinosum, Basale
  83. Acne is a disorder associated with
    sebaceous glands
  84. Arrector pili cause
    goose bumps
  85. If a splinter penetrated the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot it would damage the
    lucidum
  86. Meissner’s corpuscles are specialized for reception of
    touch or light pressure
  87. Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts
  88. Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to
    deter insects
  89. The function of the root hair plexus is to allow the hair to
    assist in touch sensation
  90. Vernix caseosa is a whitsh material produced by
    fetal sebceous glands
  91. The ceruminous gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes
    wax
  92. Nutrients reach the surface of the skin through the process of
    diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis
  93. The major part of the hypodermis’s make-up is
    adipose which serves as an effective shock absorber
  94. Squamous cell carcinoma appears as a
    scaly reddened papule and tends to grow rapidly and matastasize
  95. Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because they produce a
    fibrous protein that give the skin much of its protective properties
  96. The Stratum basale is responsible for
    cell division and replacement in the epidermis
  97. Macrophages called epidermal dendritic cells arise from
    bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis
  98. Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces proctect against excessive water loss through the skin
  99. Fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells are likely to be found in the
    dermis
  100. The reticular layer of the dermis constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for
    the tension lines in the skin
  101. Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a
    natural sunscreen
  102. An epidermal dendritic cell is a specialized
    phagocytic cell
  103. Fingernails are a modification of the
    epidermis
  104. Eccrine and apocrine glands are
    sweat glands
  105. The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is
    99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
  106. Apocrine glands are found in the
    axillary and anogenital area
  107. The secretion of sebum is stimulated by
    hormones, ecspecially androgens
  108. The extent of burn damage is determined by
    the rule of nines
  109. Eyebrow follicles are
    only active for a few months
  110. With osteoporosis bones are
    porous and thin but bone composition is normal
  111. With osteomalacia bone formed is
    poorly mineralized, soft, and deforms on weight bearing
  112. Paget’s disease causes
    abnormal bone formation and reabsorption
  113. Comminuted fracture
    bone fragments into many pieces
  114. The lining of the marrow cavity is the
    endosteum
  115. Osteoclasts are cells that
    can dissolve the bony matrix
  116. Lamellae are layers of
    bony matrix
  117. Canaliculi are small channels that radiate through
    the matrix of bone
  118. Osteoblasts are cells that
    can build bony matrix
  119. Chondrocytes are the cells responsible for
    the early stages of endochondral ossification
  120. The growth pattern of bone in which matrix is laid down on the surface is called
    appositional growth
  121. Diaphysis is the area of long bones where
    cartilage cells are replaced by bone cells
  122. The appearance of the epiphyseal line signals
    the end of bone growth
  123. Area where longitudinal bone growth takes place is called
    the epiphyseal plate
  124. Compact bone is adapted to
    support weight and withstand tension stress
  125. The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is
    the osteoblast
  126. Hyaline cartilage is
    the forerunner of long bones in the embryo
  127. Deficiency of GH during bone formation can cause
    decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
  128. A fracture in the shaft of the bone would be a break in the
    diaphysis
  129. The term diploe refers to
    the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
  130. Ossification of the ends of long bones is produced by
    secondary ossification centers
  131. The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is
    hyaline
  132. The osteon is the structural unit of
    compact bone
  133. Bones are covered and lined by protective tissue called
    periosteum
  134. The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by
    dense connective tissue called perforating fibers or sharpey’s fibers
  135. The canal that runs through the core of each osteon is
    the Haversian canal
  136. The Haversian canal is the site of
    blood vessels and nerve fibers
  137. Lacunae are the small spaces in
    bone tissue that osteocytes live in
  138. The process of bones increasing in width is known as
    appositional growth
  139. Parathyroid hormone increases osteoclast activity to release
    more calcium ions into the blood stream
  140. Cranial bones develop within
    fibrous membranes
  141. The thyroid produces hormones that
    decrease blood calcium levels
  142. Osteomyelitis is due to
    pus-forming bacteria
  143. In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows by
    pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
  144. Spongy bones are made up of
    a framework called trabeculae
  145. Blood cell formation is called
    hematopoiesis
  146. A bone embedded in a tendon is called a
    sesamoid bone
  147. A foramen is
    a round or oval hole through a bone that contains blood vessels and or nerves
  148. Lacrimal bones are
    very small bones at the medial wall of each orbit
  149. The temporal bones house the
    apparatus of the internal and middle ear
  150. Lacrimal bones have a passageway into the
    nasal cavity
  151. The sella turica is a portion of the
    sphenoid bone
  152. The fingers have three and the thumb has two
    phalnges
  153. The humerous articulates with the
    glenoid fossa
  154. The radius articulates with
    The radius articulates with
  155. The lumbar vertebrae have the thickest
    centrum
  156. The lumbar vertebrae have
    short blunt spinous processes
  157. The coccyx is a
    fused rudimentary bone
  158. The atlas is a circle of bone that articulates superiorly with
    the occipital condyles
  159. The thoracic vertebrae have
    articular facets for the ribs
  160. The ilium forms the largest portion of the
    coxal bone
  161. The skull, vertebral column, and rib cage make up the
    axial skeleton

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