Reproductive System.txt

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heplac
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52205
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Reproductive System.txt
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2010-11-29 14:55:31
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reproductive system
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  1. Primary sex organs (gonads) for males?
    testes
  2. Primary sex organs (gonads) for females?
    Overies
  3. The gonads or primary sex organs produce sex cells called what
    gametes
  4. The gonads or primary sex organs secrete steroid sex hormones, called what in males and females
    Androgens in males and Estrogen and Progesterone in females.
  5. Reproductive structures - ducts, glands and external genitalia are referred to as
    accessory productive organs
  6. Testes(within the scrotum) produce what?
    sperm
  7. What is the path that Sperm is delivered to the exterior through a system of ducts?
    Epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and the urethra
  8. The accessory sex glands of the male reproductive system which empty their secretions into the ducts during ejaculation are what?
    seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands
  9. The testes are a pair in a sac called what
    scrotum
  10. The scrotum temp is 4 degrees lower than the body temp why?
    to keep the sperms alive
  11. T or F Scrotum distends or pulled close to body to warm the testes
    Fales Scrotum distends or pulled close to body to maintain constant temp
  12. The two sets of muscles which respond to change in temp associated with the scrotum
    the dartos muscle and the cremaster muscle
  13. This muscle is a layer of smooth muscle in the superficial fasica of the scrotum (wthout fat and wrinkles the scrotal skin)
    The dartos muscle
  14. These muscles are bands of skeletal muscle that arise from the internal oblique muscles of the trunk, elevate the testes.
    The cremaster muscles
  15. The testes have coils of these where sperms are produced "sperm factories" and are lined with smooth muscles
    seminiferous tubules
  16. The testes have interstitial cells (LeydigCells) that produces what
    androgens
  17. From semiferous tububles, sperms transported to where and what happens to the sperm there?
    epidymis to mature and for storage
  18. This is a tubule that carries sperm from the epidymis
    Vas deferens
  19. Internally, the penis contains what? (4 things)
    the spongy urethra and three long cylindrical bodies (corpora) of erectile tissue
  20. Within the penis the spongy urethra and three long cylindrical bodies (corpora) of erectile tissue, each covered by what?
    a sheath of dense fibrous connective tissue
  21. The erectile tissue within the penis is a network of connective tissue and what?
    smooth muscle
  22. The erectile tissue within the penis is a network of connective tissue and smooth muscle riddled with vascular spaces called what?
    corpora cavernosa
  23. Blood supply to the male reproductive system is from what arteries?
    testicular arteris branch of abdominal aorta superior to the pelvis
  24. Veins from the male reproductive system, testicular veins arise from a network called what?
    pampiniform plexus
  25. This network of veins absorbs heat from the arterial blood, cooling it before it enters the testes?
    pampinifor plexus
  26. T or F: The pampiniformplexus absorbs heat from the arterial blood, cooling it before it enters the testes is called Cool homeostatic temp
    True
  27. What sensory nerve (in the male reproductive system) transmits pain impulses to the brain
    associated sensory nerves
  28. In male reproductive system the nerve fibers, blood vessels and lymphatics are in a connective tissue sheath called what?
    spermatic cord which passes through the inguinal canal
  29. T or F: The testes are served by one of the autonomic nervous systems?
    False both the sympathic and parasympathic
  30. This is a male accessory gland thats secretion accounts for 60% of the volume of semen?
    seminal vesicles or gland.
  31. Describe the Seminal Vesicles or glands secretion
    yellowish viscous alkaline fluid
  32. The yellowish viscous alkaline fluid secreted by The Seminal Vesicles or glands contains what?
    has fructose sugar, ascorbic acid, a coagulating enzyme (vesiculase), and prostaglandins, substances that enhance sperm motility
  33. This is a male accessory gland thats secretion accounts for 33% of the volume of semen?
    The prostate
  34. This male accessory gland encircles the urethra just inferior to the bladder
    The prostate
  35. Describe the Prostate secretion and what it contains
    It is a milky, slightly acid fluid that contains citrate (a nutrient source), several enzymes, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
  36. These male accessory glands are pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate gland
    The BulbourethralGlands (Cowper's gland)
  37. Describe the Bulbourethral Gland secretion and what it contains
    produce a thick, clear mucus, neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra
  38. The male urethra conveys both urine and what?
    seman at different times
  39. What are the three regions, depending on the location, of the male urethra?
    1.Prostatic urethra 2.Membranous urethra 3.Spongy (penile) urethra
  40. T or F: Semen is a Mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions
    True
  41. Semen's liquid provides a transport medium and nutrients and contains chemicals that do what?
    protect and activate sperm, and facilitates their movement (e.g., relaxin)
  42. Semen is more acid or alkaline?
    alkaline: Alkalinity neutralizes the acid in the male urethra and female vagin
  43. Semen contains chemicals called what to destroy certain bacteria
    Antibiotic
  44. After ejaculation what are the characteristics of semen?
    Clotting factors coagulate semen just after ejaculation, then fibrinolysin liquefies it
  45. What is the amount of semen propelled out of the male duct system
    2-5 ml (of which 20-150 million sperm per ml)
  46. What is the Sequence of events that produces sperm in the seminiferous tubules of the testes?
    Spermatogenisis
  47. The normal chromosome number in most body cells is referred to as the diploid chromosomal number which is symbolized as what?
    2n
  48. Most body cells are diploid (2n) and contain how many sets of chromosomes?
    Two sets of chromosomes (one maternal, one paternal)
  49. Most body cells are diploid (2n) and contain how many pairs of chromosomes?
    23 pairs of homologous chromosomes
  50. The number of chromosomes in human gametes is what?
    23
  51. The number of chromosomes in human gametes is 23, this is referred to as what
    haploid (n)
  52. To form gamete what is involved?
    Meiosis
  53. Nuclear division in the gonadsin which the number of chromosomes is halved how is this referred to?
    from 2n to n
  54. Meiosis has two consecutive cell division (meiosis I and II) following what?
    one round of DNA replication.
  55. Meiosis produces four daughter cells? true or false
    True
  56. Meiosis produces cells for reproduction (gametes) and introduces what type of variation?
    genetic variaton.
  57. Meiosis has two divisions, what are they?
    Meiosis I (reductive division) 2n to n (46 to 23) Meiosis II (mitosis process) n to n (23 to 23)
  58. Meiosis: 23 pairs of chromosomes are broken down how?
    22 autosomal + X,Y are sex chromosomes.
  59. How spermatic cells give rise to sperm, name the process
    Mitosis: spermatogonia form spermatocytes then Meiosis: Spermatocytes form spermatids then Spermiogenesis: spermatids become sperm
  60. The three regions of sperm:
    head: genetic region; nucleus and acrosome containing hydrolytic enzymes that enable the sperm to penetrate an egg 2.Midpiece: metabolic region; mitochondria 3. Tail: locomotor region; flagellum
  61. Of the 300 million sperm what percentage is defective?
    60%
  62. Where is Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproductive found?
    Hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
  63. The Hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete what?
    FSH and LH
  64. FSH from the anterior pituitary makes what?
    spermatogenic cell receptive to testosterone
  65. LH from the anterior pituitary makes what?
    interstitial cells to release testosterone
  66. What is the final trigger for spermatogenesis
    Testosterone
  67. T or F: decreasing levels of testosterone feed back to inhibit hypothalamic release of GnRH
    False the rising levels of testosterone feed back to inhibit hypothalamic release of GnRH
  68. When the sperm count is high this is released
    Inhibin
  69. Testosterone is synthesized from what
    cholesterol via estrogen
  70. Testosterone prompts what
    spermatogenesis
  71. This steroid hormone has multiple anabolic effects throughout the body
    testosterone
  72. This steroid hormone is the basis of a males sex drive
    testosterone
  73. Testosterone is responsible for secondary sex characteristics (5 things)
    Appearance of pubic, axillary, and facial hair - Enhanced growth of the chest and deepening of the voice - Skin thickens and becomes oily - Bones grow and increase in density - Skeletal muscles increase in size and mass
  74. What is the femal gonads
    Overies
  75. This is where females produce gametes (ova)
    Overies
  76. What are the two female sex hormones secreted by the overies
    estrogen and progesterone
  77. Uterine tubes, Uterus and Vagina are what type of ducts in the female reproductive anatomy
    accessory ducts
  78. The ovaries are held in place by several ligaments, name the three of them along with how they work
    Ovarian ligament: anchors ovary medially to the uterus - Suspensory ligament: anchors ovary laterally to the pelvic wall - Mesovarium: suspends the ovary
  79. This ligament supports the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina; also contains the suspensory ligament and the mesovarium
    The Broad ligament
  80. Where does the blood suppy come from for the ovaries
    ovarian arteries and the ovarian branch of the uterine artery
  81. Like each testis, each ovary is surrounded externally by what?
    fibrous tunica albuginea
  82. In the ovary cortex are many tiny saclike structures called ovarian follicles. Each follicle consists of an immature egg called what?
    oocyte
  83. This is a Fluid-filled follicle that bulges from ovary surface
    Vesicular (Graafian) follicle
  84. What happens during ovulation
    one of the ripen follicles ejects its oocyte from the ovary
  85. After ovulation the ruptured follicle develops into a very different looking glandular structure called what?
    Corpus luteum
  86. What are two other names for uterine tubes, this is part of the female duct system
    fallopian tubes or oviducts
  87. What are the two ways the oocyte is carried toward the uterus
    muscular peristalsis and beating of the cilia
  88. Noncilited cells in the Uterine (fallopian) tubes have what function?
    keep the oocyte and any sperm present, moist and nourished.
  89. What is the superior and inferior region of the uterus and their characteristics
    Fundus: rounded superior region and the Isthmus: narrowed inferior region
  90. The uterine wall has three layers, what are they and their details
    Perimetrium: serous layer (visceral peritoneum) the Myometrium: interlacing layers of smooth muscle and the Endometrium: mucosal lining-outer layer is shed during menstruation.
  91. Uterine Vascular Supply comes from the uterine arteries which arises from where
    internal iliacs
  92. The uterine arteries branch into the uterine wall. What is the name of the branch within the myometrium?
    arcuate arteries
  93. The arcuate arteries send radial branches into the endometrium where they in turn give to where?
    Spiral arteries to stratum functionalis and Straight arteries to stratum basalis
  94. The spasms of the spiral arteries cause what to happen?
    shedding of stratum functionalis during menstruation
  95. This is the Birth canal and organ of copulation
    Vagina
  96. What is embedded in the anterior wall of the vagina
    the urethra
  97. What are the three coats of the distensible wall of the vagina
    Fibroelasticadventitia the Smooth muscle muscularis and the Stratified squamous mucosa with rugae (transverse ridges)
  98. Mucosa near the distal vaginal orifice forms an incomplete partition called what?
    the hymen
  99. The upper end of the vagina surrounding the cervix is called what
    Vaginal fornix
  100. Female external genitalia, the fatty area overlying pubic symphysis
    Mons pubis
  101. Female External Genitalia the hair-covered, fatty skin folds
    Labia majora
  102. This contains the external openings of the urethra and the vagina
    Vestibule
  103. This is Homologous to the bulbourethral glands of the male, it also Release mucus into the vestibule for lubrication
    greater vestibular glands
  104. A small protruding structure composed largly of erectile tissue
    Clitoris
  105. the exposed portion of the clitoris is called what
    Glans clitoris
  106. T or F the perineum is the diamond shaped are of the external genitalia
    true
  107. T or F mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are really part of the skin or integumentary system.
    true
  108. the pigmented skin surrounding the nipple
    areola
  109. this ligament attaches the breast to the underlying muscle
    suspensory ligaments
  110. Within the lobes of the mammary glands are lobules which contain glandular alveoli that does what
    produces milk when a woman is lactating.
  111. When female sex cells are produced, this process is called what
    oogensis
  112. Oogensis begins when in femals
    in the fetal period
  113. the diploid stem cells (2n) of the overies multiply rapidly by what event?
    by mitosis and then enter a growth phase and lay in nutrient reserves.
  114. primordial follicles begin to appear as the oogonia are transformed into what
    primary oocytes
  115. the primary oocytes begin the first meiotic division but become stalled when
    in the prophase I
  116. The Monthly series of events associated with the maturation of an egg is called what
    ovarian cycle
  117. The ovarian cycle has two consecutive phases (in a 28-day cycle) what are the phases
    Follicular phase:period of follicle growth (days1�14) then Ovulation occurs midcycle then the Lutealphase: period of corpus luteumactivity (days14�28)
  118. During the menstrual cycle Changes that occur in the uterus are dependent upon the interaction between what three places
    uterus, brain, and endometrium
  119. as estrogen levels rise during puberty in females the do two things what are they
    Promote oogenesis and follicle growth in the ovary and Exert anabolic effects on the female reproductive tract
  120. T or F estrogen supports a rapid and long growth spurt at puberty
    fales is a short lived growth spurt.
  121. estrogen Induced secondary sex characteristics of femals include
    Growth of the breasts, Increased deposit of subcutaneous fat (hips and breasts) and Widening and lightening of the pelvis
  122. Metabolic effects that estrogens has on femals
    Maintain low total blood cholesterol and high HDL levels and Facilitates calcium uptake
  123. Progesterone works with estrogen to establish and regulate what cycle
    the uterine cycle
  124. what are the Effects of placental progesterone during pregnancy
    Inhibits uterine motility and Helps prepare the breasts for lactation
  125. what is it called when menses have ceased for an entire year
    menopause

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