The Hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete what?
FSH and LH
FSH from the anterior pituitary makes what?
spermatogenic cell receptive to testosterone
LH from the anterior pituitary makes what?
interstitial cells to release testosterone
What is the final trigger for spermatogenesis
T or F: decreasing levels of testosterone feed back to inhibit hypothalamic release of GnRH
False the rising levels of testosterone feed back to inhibit hypothalamic release of GnRH
When the sperm count is high this is released
Testosterone is synthesized from what
cholesterol via estrogen
Testosterone prompts what
This steroid hormone has multiple anabolic effects throughout the body
This steroid hormone is the basis of a males sex drive
Testosterone is responsible for secondary sex characteristics (5 things)
Appearance of pubic, axillary, and facial hair - Enhanced growth of the chest and deepening of the voice - Skin thickens and becomes oily - Bones grow and increase in density - Skeletal muscles increase in size and mass
What is the femal gonads
This is where females produce gametes (ova)
What are the two female sex hormones secreted by the overies
estrogen and progesterone
Uterine tubes, Uterus and Vagina are what type of ducts in the female reproductive anatomy
The ovaries are held in place by several ligaments, name the three of them along with how they work
Ovarian ligament: anchors ovary medially to the uterus - Suspensory ligament: anchors ovary laterally to the pelvic wall - Mesovarium: suspends the ovary
This ligament supports the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina; also contains the suspensory ligament and the mesovarium
The Broad ligament
Where does the blood suppy come from for the ovaries
ovarian arteries and the ovarian branch of the uterine artery
Like each testis, each ovary is surrounded externally by what?
fibrous tunica albuginea
In the ovary cortex are many tiny saclike structures called ovarian follicles. Each follicle consists of an immature egg called what?
This is a Fluid-filled follicle that bulges from ovary surface
Vesicular (Graafian) follicle
What happens during ovulation
one of the ripen follicles ejects its oocyte from the ovary
After ovulation the ruptured follicle develops into a very different looking glandular structure called what?
What are two other names for uterine tubes, this is part of the female duct system
fallopian tubes or oviducts
What are the two ways the oocyte is carried toward the uterus
muscular peristalsis and beating of the cilia
Noncilited cells in the Uterine (fallopian) tubes have what function?
keep the oocyte and any sperm present, moist and nourished.
What is the superior and inferior region of the uterus and their characteristics
Fundus: rounded superior region and the Isthmus: narrowed inferior region
The uterine wall has three layers, what are they and their details
Perimetrium: serous layer (visceral peritoneum) the Myometrium: interlacing layers of smooth muscle and the Endometrium: mucosal lining-outer layer is shed during menstruation.
Uterine Vascular Supply comes from the uterine arteries which arises from where
The uterine arteries branch into the uterine wall. What is the name of the branch within the myometrium?
The arcuate arteries send radial branches into the endometrium where they in turn give to where?
Spiral arteries to stratum functionalis and Straight arteries to stratum basalis
The spasms of the spiral arteries cause what to happen?
shedding of stratum functionalis during menstruation
This is the Birth canal and organ of copulation
What is embedded in the anterior wall of the vagina
What are the three coats of the distensible wall of the vagina
Fibroelasticadventitia the Smooth muscle muscularis and the Stratified squamous mucosa with rugae (transverse ridges)
Mucosa near the distal vaginal orifice forms an incomplete partition called what?
The upper end of the vagina surrounding the cervix is called what
Female external genitalia, the fatty area overlying pubic symphysis
Female External Genitalia the hair-covered, fatty skin folds
This contains the external openings of the urethra and the vagina
This is Homologous to the bulbourethral glands of the male, it also Release mucus into the vestibule for lubrication
greater vestibular glands
A small protruding structure composed largly of erectile tissue
the exposed portion of the clitoris is called what
T or F the perineum is the diamond shaped are of the external genitalia
T or F mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are really part of the skin or integumentary system.
the pigmented skin surrounding the nipple
this ligament attaches the breast to the underlying muscle
Within the lobes of the mammary glands are lobules which contain glandular alveoli that does what
produces milk when a woman is lactating.
When female sex cells are produced, this process is called what
Oogensis begins when in femals
in the fetal period
the diploid stem cells (2n) of the overies multiply rapidly by what event?
by mitosis and then enter a growth phase and lay in nutrient reserves.
primordial follicles begin to appear as the oogonia are transformed into what
the primary oocytes begin the first meiotic division but become stalled when
in the prophase I
The Monthly series of events associated with the maturation of an egg is called what
The ovarian cycle has two consecutive phases (in a 28-day cycle) what are the phases
Follicular phase:period of follicle growth (days1�14) then Ovulation occurs midcycle then the Lutealphase: period of corpus luteumactivity (days14�28)
During the menstrual cycle Changes that occur in the uterus are dependent upon the interaction between what three places
uterus, brain, and endometrium
as estrogen levels rise during puberty in females the do two things what are they
Promote oogenesis and follicle growth in the ovary and Exert anabolic effects on the female reproductive tract
T or F estrogen supports a rapid and long growth spurt at puberty
fales is a short lived growth spurt.
estrogen Induced secondary sex characteristics of femals include
Growth of the breasts, Increased deposit of subcutaneous fat (hips and breasts) and Widening and lightening of the pelvis
Metabolic effects that estrogens has on femals
Maintain low total blood cholesterol and high HDL levels and Facilitates calcium uptake
Progesterone works with estrogen to establish and regulate what cycle
the uterine cycle
what are the Effects of placental progesterone during pregnancy
Inhibits uterine motility and Helps prepare the breasts for lactation
what is it called when menses have ceased for an entire year