Pain and Special Sences Disorders NS 216.txt

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Pain and Special Sences Disorders NS 216.txt
2010-11-29 19:39:31

pain and special senses
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  1. Presbycusis (def)
    age related hearing loss
  2. Otitis media (def)
    inflammation of the the middle ear due to fluid collection and resulting in conductive hearing loss
  3. Sensorineural hearing loss (def)
    hearing loss due to lesion of disease of the inner ear or auditory nerve (CN 8)
  4. Nociception (def)
    the perception of pain
  5. Transduction (def)
    process of converting a painful stimulus into an action potential that can be transmitted to the CNS
  6. Transmission (explain)
    • action potential travels from injury to spinal cord
    • -- from spinal cord to brain stem and thalamus
    • -- from thalamus to cortex
  7. Perception (def)
    interpretation of the sensory impulse of pain
  8. Modulation (def)
    physiologic or behavioral actions that modify intensity of the pain sensation
  9. Excitatory modulators (6)
    • substance P
    • glutamate
    • somatostatin
    • vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
    • calcitonin-gene-related peptide
    • adenosine triphosphate
  10. What do excitatory modulators do? What is another name for them?
    • Also called neurotransmiters
    • facilitate the transmission of the pain impulse across the synaptic cleft between the nociceptors and the dorsal horn neurons
  11. Neural processing of pain: the ___ perceives pain, the ___ provides emotion/expression related to pain
    • parietal lobe - perceives pain
    • limbic system - emotion/expression related to pain
  12. Threshold (def)
    • level of painful stimulation required in order to perceive pain
    • does NOT vary from person to person
  13. Tolerance (def)
    • duration and/or intensity of pain that an individual can tolerate before seeking assistance
    • varies person to person based on situation, gender, age, culture, etc.
  14. Gate closers and examples
    • A-alpha & A-beta (non-nociceptive large diameter fibers
    • e.g.: touch, vibration, thermal stimulation
  15. Gate openers
    Aδ & C
  16. Acute pain (def)
    • rapid onset from injury
    • lasts less than 3 months
  17. What M's of chronic pain differentiate it from acute pain?
    • NO sympathetic symptoms with chronic pain
    • chronic pain often has psychological manifestations (insomnia, depression, preoccupation with pain, looking for meaning in the pain)
  18. Conductive Hearing loss (def)
    alterations in the outer and middle ear that interfere with conduction of sound waves to the inner ear
  19. Conductive Hearing loss (M's)
    • impaired hearing signaled by:
    • -- reduced attentiveness to environment
    • -- sitting very close to tv or radio
    • soft speeking voice
  20. Otitis Media (M's)
    • diminished hearing
    • cloudy tympanic membrane w/ altered light reflection
    • reddened tympanic membrane
    • bulging tympanic membrane
    • otalgia (ear pain) that subsides if eardrum ruptures
    • fever
    • headache
  21. Presbyopia (def)
    decreased accommodation for near vision due to thickening of lens
  22. Macular degeneration (def)
    degeneration of the macula resulting in loss of central vision
  23. Conjunctivitis (def)
    • also known as "pink eye"
    • inflammation of the conjunctiva
  24. Hyperacute Bacterial Conjunctivitis (M's)
    • * sight threatening *
    • conjunctival redness and edema
    • lid edema and tenderness
    • enlarged preaurecular lymph nodes
  25. Which type of bacterial conjunctivitis is "sight threatening"?
  26. A Gonococcal eye infection = ___
    Hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis
  27. Acute Bacterial Conjunctivitis (M's)
    • yellow-green drainage (large amounts)
    • eyelids sticky
  28. Chronic Bacterial Conjunctivitis (M's)
    • itching
    • burning
    • foreign body sensation
    • morning eyelash crusting
  29. What manifestation separates Allergic conjunctivitis from all other types?
    allergic starts out bilateral, all other are unilateral until spread
  30. Viral conjunctivitis a/w Adenovirus (M's)
    • hyperemia (dilated blood vessels)
    • excessive tearing
    • minimal exudate (gloppy stuff)
  31. Viral conjunctivitis a/w herpes (M's)
    • irritation
    • mucous discharge
    • pain
    • mild photophobia
  32. Allergic conjunctivitis (M's)
    • tearing
    • itching
    • redness
  33. Keratitis (def)
    inflammation of the cornea
  34. Keratitis (M's)
    • irritation
    • photophobia
    • tearing
    • corneal scarring and ulceration resulting in permanently diminished vision
  35. What are some viruses and bacteria that cause keratitis?
    • staphylococcus
    • streptococcus
    • chlamydia
    • herpes
  36. Gonococcal infection or Herpes simples virus can cause what eye disorder?
  37. Strabismus (def)
    • one eye cannot focus with the other
    • eyes are misaligned
    • most commonly a control system problem
  38. Nystagmus (def)
    involuntary movement of the eyes (horizontal, vertical, rotary)
  39. Scotoma (def)
    • an abnormal blind spot
    • an area in the visual field in which vision is absent or very diminished
  40. Cataracts (def)
    • loss of transparency of the lens
    • can cause partial or total blindness
  41. Cataracts (M's)
    • burred vision
    • vision for near and far decreased
    • pupil dilation improves vision
    • may be unilateral or bilateral
  42. What eye disorder is a/w smoking, diabetes mellitus, and taking systemic corticosteroids?
  43. Glaucoma (def)
    a group of eye diseases that result in increased intraocular pressure because of decreased outflow of aqueous humor
  44. What eye disorder can result in retinal ischemia and blindness?
  45. What type of eye disorder is considered an emergency situation?
    angle closed glaucoma
  46. Which type of glaucoma is insidious?
    open angle
  47. Acute (angle closed) glaucoma (M's)
    • severe eye pain
    • dilation of pupil
    • nausea and vomiting
  48. Chronic (open angle) glaucoma (M's)
    • gradual loss of peripheral vision -> tunnel vision
    • dull eye pain (persistent)
    • loss of color vision
  49. Ageusia or Hypoguesia (def)
    loss or impaired sense of taste
  50. Damage to cn 9 results in what taste disturbance?
    loss of sensitivity to bitter
  51. Damage to cn 7 results in what taste disturbance?
    loss of sensitivity to sweet, sour, and salt
  52. Dysguesia (def)
    • perversion of taste
    • everything tastes unpleasant
  53. What taste disturbance is common with people receiving chemotherapy?