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2010-11-29 20:49:02
Chapter Behavioral Adaptations

Test #4
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  1. 1. Behavior
    2. Ethology
    3. Behavioral ecology
    4. Innate behavior
    5. Taxis
    • 1. everything an animal does and how it does it, and why
    • 2. study of amimal behavior
    • 3. study of behavior (as an adaptation) in the context of ecology (in the present) and evolution (over time)
    • 4. under strong genetic influence (not learned)
    • 5. automatic movement toward or away from stimulus
  2. 1. imprinting
    2. sensitive periods
    3. signal
    4. communication
    5. pheromones
    • 1. type of learned behavior with a significant innate component, acquired during a limited sensitive period. (EX: Ducks following the mother out of the nest.)
    • 2. periods in which an animal imprints on a caregiver, usually the first live thing they touch or see
    • 3. behavior that causes a change in behavior in another animal
    • 4. transmission of, reception of, and response signals;
    • -visual acuity, auditory, chemical tactiles, and electrical cues
    • - genetic and learned components
    • 5. chemical that functions in communication and acts much like a hormone to influence physiology; behavior
    • - courtship and mating
    • - territoriality
    • - alarm and kin recogniton
  3. 1. territory
    2. agnostic behavior
    3. promiscuous
    4. monogamous
    5. polygamous
    • 1. area, usually fixed in location, that individuals defend against other members of the same species ( to guard resources such as food, nesting sites, and potential mates)
    • 2. includes a variety of threats or actual combat that settles disputes between inidviduals in a population (over resources; mates)
    • 3. no strong pair bonds or lasting relationships
    • 4. one male mating with one female
    • 5. individual of one sex mating with several of the other (monogamous animals exhibit less sexual dimorphism than polygamous animals)
  4. 1. inclusive fitness
    2. coefficient of relatedness
    3. learning
    4. habituation
    • 1. total effect individual has on proliferating its genes (own offspring plus helping other close relatives)
    • 2. probability that if 2 individuals share parent or ancestor, a particular gene will also be shared
    • 3. modification of behavior based on specific experiences
    • 4. loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey very little info (cry-wolf effect)
  5. 1. social learning
    2. culture
    3. associative learning
    4. classical conditioning
    5. operant conditioning
    • 1. learning through observing others
    • 2. system of info transfer through social learning that influences behavior within the population
    • 3. ability to associate one feature of the enviornment with another
    • 4. arbitrary stimulus associated with reward or punishment
    • 5. animal learns to associate one of its own behaviors with reward or punishment (trial and error learning)
  6. 1. cognition
    2. corvids and intelligence
    3. Koko the Gorilla
    • 1. ability of animal's nervous system to percieve, store, and process and use info gathered by sensory receptors.
    • 2. Corvids are a member of the bird family Corvidae, including crows, ravens, jays, choughs, treepies etc and their intelligence includes: causual reasoning, innovation and tool use, imagnination, and planning ahead.
    • 3. Her vocab in ASL exceeds 1000 words