Chapter 18 & 19 - THE CELL
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Programmed cell death occurs primarily by __________, where the cell _________, the cytoskeleton ____________ ____, the nuclear
envelope ____________, and the chromatin _________ and fragments.
- breaks up
During the final stage of apoptosis, the _______ ________ exhibits _____ and the cell surface is altered so that the cell is _______ before it breaks open.
- plasma membrane
During apoptosis, the cell surface becomes altered by ___________, and becomes transported to the outer monolayer; this acts as a “_____ _____” signal. Other signals act as “__ __ __” signals that have to be ______ or removed from the cell surface.
- "eat me"
- "dont eat me"
Provide 3 examples of Apoptosis:
- 1. Paw of a mouse fetus
- 2. Tadpole tail
- 3. Human epidermis
Why are cells programmed to die?
Because they are no longer needed.
___________ is cell death that is caused by physical or chemical injury, infection, or loss of blood supply. The cell in this type of cell death ______ and __________.
- swells and bursts open
In __________ cells, apoptosis involves the action of proteases called _______. When active, they are named _________ where a large subunit, and a small subunit form 2 heterodimers. Activation proteases occur by_______ and are named ___________.
Provide the 4 characteristics of Caspases:
1. ______________[Golgi matrix proteins]
2. ______________[Cell fragmentation, membrane blebbling]
3. _____________[Nuclear Lamins]
4. _____________[DNA fragmentation]
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