Biology

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Author:
Hnic702
ID:
52290
Filename:
Biology
Updated:
2010-11-29 21:19:51
Tags:
Chapter Population Dynamics
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Description:
Test #4
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  1. 1. population ecology
    2. population
    3. density
    4. dispersion
    • 1. study of changes in population size and factors that regulate populations over time
    • 2. group of individuals of a single species living in the same place; interbreeding
    • 3. number of individuals per unit area or volume
    • 4. pattern among spacing among individuals
  2. 1. immigration
    2. emigration
    • 1. add new individuals from other populations
    • 2. movement of individuals out of a population
  3. 1. life tables
    2. cohort
    3. survivorship curve
    a. Type I Curve
    b. Type II Curve
    c. Type III Curve
    • 1. age specific summaries of survival pattern in population
    • 2. group of individuals of the same age; follow fate from birth to death
    • 3. plot of proportion in cohort still alive at each age
    • a. low death rates in early and middle life; increase in older age groups
    • b. death rate constant for all age groups... why?
    • c. high death rates highest for young age groups... why?
  4. 1. exponential growth
    2. limiting factors
    3. carrying capacity
    4. logistic populationg growth
    • 1.geometric increase in unlimited conditionswhole population multiplies by constant factor (each time interval ) 2, 4, 8,16, 32, 64, etc.does exponential growth happen in nature?
    • 2. environmental factors that restrict pop. growth
    • 3. max. pop. size that environment can support- defined for given organism, habitat; varies with resources- consider food, water, sunlight, refuges, nesting sites, etc.
    • 4. population growth slowed by limiting factors as sizeincreases; approaching carrying capacity
  5. 1. density dependent (birth or death rate)
    2. population cycle
    3. trade offs
    • 1. reproductive changes with population density (i.e., inverse relationship)
    • 2. (rare event) – regular fluctuations;“boom & bust”unusually long-term sets ( like traps for fur pelts)
    • 3. when time, energy, nutrients are used for one thingthey cannot be used for another
  6. Why are there high death rates and low birth rates?
    higher death rate- intense competition for resourcesexploitative vs. interference- health (malnutrition, epidemics, etc.)- increased predation (& cannibalism)- toxic waste build-uplower birth rate- intrinsic factors (social, hormonal, etc.)
  7. 1. sustainable resource management
    2. maximum sustained yield
    3. intergrated pest management
    4. age structure
    • 1. harvesting withoutdamaging the resourcemaximum sustained yield
    • 2. harvesting at a level that producesa constant yield without forcing a population into decline
    • 3. use of ecological knowledge & principles to control unwanted species
    • 4. relative number of individuals of each age group
  8. 1. Zero Population growth
    2. demographic transition
    3. ecological footprint
    4. ecological capacity
    • 1.There are two ways to reach r = 0 Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
    • A.) ZPG = high birth rate - high death rate
    • B.) ZPG = low birth rate - low death rate

    • 2. movement from first scenario (above)to second scenario; during this time growth rate (r) is positive
    • 3. aggregate land & water used for a nation,state, city, individual, etc.
    • - crop lands, pasture, forest, ocean, urbanization, fossil energy
    • 4. actual resource base of each nation consider sustainability
  9. What factors will limit population growth?
    • food?
    • nonrenewable resources?
    • epidemics?
    • voluntary reduction:
    • * offspring production
    • * resource use

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