Sociology Test 4
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What is Endogamy?
Marriage between two people in the same social category
What is Exogamy?
Marriage between two people in different social categories.
What is Monogamy?
Marriage between two people
What is Polygamy?
Marriage between three or more people
Live in the place of the father's family
The family lives in the place of the mother's family
The family lives in a new location away from either family.
What are the functions of a family?
Primary agent of socialization, social hierarchy, and regulation of sexual activities.
How are childbirth and marital satisfaction related?
Happiness high at birth, low at teenage years, high at empty nest.
What is the social-change analysis of courtship and marriage?
"I want to date you. What can you offer me? What can I offer you?"
What is the current divorce rate in the United States? What are the causes?
4/10 marriages end in divorce. Individuality, more acceptable, stress.
According to Marx, how does religion perpetuate inequality?
Religious beliefs can be used against you (Hitler)
What aspects of our culture are profane (ordinary)? Sacred?
Home. Prayer and rituals that create a sense of awe and reverence.
What is Church? State Church?
- Church- Formal Religious organization
- State Church- Church aligned with the state.
What is a denomination? Sect? Cult?
- Denomination- Not linked to the stateSect- Isolated from society
- Cult- Charismatic leader
What is secularization?
Historical decline in the influence of religion
Stages of religious development
- 1. Hunter/Gath: God is in nature
- 2. Horticultural: Worshipped ancestors
- 3. Agrarian: Monotheism/Wrath of God
- 4. Industrial: God of benevolence
- 5. Post Industrial: Personalized religion
What characteristics make religious fundamentalism distinct?
- 1. Interpret sacred texts literally
- 2. Monotheistic
- 3. Pursue personal experience of God's presence.
- 4. Oppose secular humanism
- 5. Endorse consecutive political goals
The social institution through which society provides its members with facts.
How does schooling perpetuate inequality in a society?
Social control, testing, tracking
Define School choice, schooling for profit, and charter schools
- School choice: You get a choice
- Schooling for Profit: Private schooling
- Charter schools: Magnet schools
What is leisure?
Free time that refreshes and renews
What is work?
Disciplined activity devoted to achieving a goal
What makes work satisfying? Unsatisfying?
- Satisfying: Doing what you love, creating something, working whole heartedly.
- Unsatisfying: Repetitive, useless tasks.
What is textual poaching?
Audience members manipulate an original cultural product to create a new one.
Active consumers and Passive consumers
- Adults are active consumers. Commercials for them focus on escape, social interaction, and personal identity.
- Kids are passive consumers. Commercial affect them directly
What is demography?
The study of human population
What is the difference between immigration and emigration?
- Immigration: Moving into a country
- Emigration: Moving out of a country
What does the US age/sex pyramid suggest about the future?
That our population will stay about the same.
What did the Malthusian Theory predict?
That the world population will exceed the world's ability to produce food
What are the stages of the demographic transition theory?
- 1. High birth rates and high death rates
- 2. High birth rates and rapidly falling death rates
- 3. Slow birth rates, slow death rates
- 4. Rapidly falling birth rates, Steady death rates
What was Durkheim's theory of mechanical and organic solidarity?
- Mechanical: Social bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values.
- Organic: Special bonds based on specialization and interdependence.
What is ecology?
The study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment.
What is environmental racism?
Pattern by which environmental hazards are greatest for poor people. Especially minorities.
How do the three perspectives look at social change?
- Structural Functionalist: its inevitable because of our culture
- Social Conflict: Environmental problems are a result of social conditions that favor the elite.
- Symbolic interaction: How is society experienced?
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