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Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 10 December 1948 included privacy in Article 12
"No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks"
European Convention, 4 November 1950, included Privacy in Article 8
"Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and correspondence. There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of a country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others"
Right to Privacy Bill
The UK's first try at a DP Act
Data Surveillance Bill
Introduces the concept of a register of Data Users
The first data protection law in the world - Land of Hesse, Germany.
The Federal Data Protection Act 2001 works alongside the Data Protection Acts of the 16 German states.
The Younger Report
Introduces the principles of Data Protection
Introduces a supervisory authority for DP and Rights of Access
The first national law in Sweden
Visicalc and Wordstar marketed. Within a few years IBM will produce a pc that puts data processing with reach of millions.
Access to Personal Files Act - the result of a private member's bill promoted by the CFI and introduced by Archy Kirkwood MP. It gives people the right to see manually held social work and housing records about themselves; access to school records, originally in the bill, is brought under existing legislation by agreement of the government.
OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy & Transborder Flows of personal Data 1980. Non binding 7 principles.
Council of Europe Convention 108, 1981. A collection of Foreign Ministers with a rotating presidency. 47 states involved - the majority have ratified the treaty.
The Data Protection Act 1984
Related to only data held on computers.
Access to Medical Reports Act passed.
Another private member's bill drafted by the CFI and introduced by Archy Kirkwood. It gives people the right to see any report produced by their own doctor for an employer or insurance company.
Access to Health Records Act.
This private member's bill promoted by the CFI introduced by Doug Henderson MP allows people to see information put on their records after November 1991.
European Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC.
Luxembourg, 24 October 1995. Required member states to set up supervisor authorities, bring in new legislation and required data controllers to notify.
Telecommunications Directive 97/66/EC, Privacy & Electronic Communications
Data Protection Act 1998
The Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003
DPA 1998 amended by FOIA 2000 to create category (e) data
DPA Transitional Provisions end
- Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 introduced greater powers for ICO: - power to fine for data loss (£500k).
- - requirement to notify data loss
- - prison term for breach of DPA.
Coroners & Justice Bill 2009 promised more powers for ICO.
- - power to inspect public sector without notice
- - tiered notification fees with £500 for big councils
- - nominated defendant at Board level
- - Data Protection Promise signed up to by some big companies on European DP day 28 January 2009