Chem 111 Chp 8
Card Set Information
Chem 111 Chp 8
A molecule formed by the joining of two simpler molecules through formation of a covalent bond
The energy needed to break one mole of a particular bond to give electrically neutral fragments. Increases and bond length decreases.
The distance between two nuclei that are held together by a chemical bond.
# of bonding pairs of e- divided by the # of stoms bonded to central atom
An organic compound whose molecules have the carboxyl group —CO 2H
One of a set of two or more Lewis structures used in applying the theory of resonance to the structure of a compound. A resonance structure.
Coordinate Covalent Bond
A covalent bond in which both electrons originated from one of the joined atoms, but otherwise like a covalent bond in all respects.
A chemical bond that results when atoms share electron pairs EN < 1.7
The product of the sizes of the partial charges in a dipole multiplied by the distance between them; a measure of the polarity of a molecule.
A covalent bond formed by sharing two pairs of electrons.
Two poles of electric charge separated by a distance
The relative ability of an atom to attract electron density toward itself when joined to another atom by a covalent bond.
The apparent charge on an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion as calculated by a set of rules.
The attractions between ions that hold them together in ionic compounds.
The extent to which a covalent bond has a dipole moment and is polarized.
Energy released by the imaginary process in which isolated ions come together to form a crystal of an ionic compound.
A structural formula drawn with Lewis symbols and that uses dots and dashes to show the valence electrons and shared pairs of electrons.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
A covalent bond in which the electron pair(s) are shared equally by the two atoms. EN = 0
Octet of Electron
Eight electrons in the valence shell of an atom.
to gain or lose electrons until its outer shell has eight electrons.
Charges at opposite ends of a dipole that are fractions of full 1+ or 1- charges
Polar Covalent Bonds
A covalent bond in which more than half of the bond's negative charge is concentrated around one of the two atoms. EN < 1.7
A molecule in which individual bond polarities do not cancel and in which, therefore, the centers of density of negative and positive charges do not coincide
A description of the tendency for a substance to undergo reaction. For a metal, it is the tendency to undergo oxidation.
A concept in which the actual structure of a molecule or polyatomic ion
is represented as a composite or average of two or more Lewis
structures, which are called the resonance or contributing structures
(and none of which has real existence)
The difference in energy between a substance and its principal resonance (contributing) structure.
The actual structure of a molecule or polyatomic ion taken as a composite or average of the resonance or contributing structures.
A Lewis structure that contributes to the hybrid structure in resonance-stabilized systems; a contributing structure
A covalent bond in which a single pair of electrons is shared.
A chemical formula that shows how the atoms of a molecule or polyatomic
ion are arranged, to which other atoms they are bonded, and the kinds of
bonds (single, double, or triple).