micro 2

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micro 2
2010-12-03 11:26:28

micro test 2
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  1. ________ organisms that us CO2 as their carbon source by converting C02 to __________ matter.
    • autotrophs
    • organic
  2. _________ are nutrionally independant living things
  3. ______ get their energy source from sunlight.
  4. _______ have their energy sourches from inorganic compounds.
    (the examples recycle inorganic nutrients)
  5. _________ are organisms whos energy and carbon sources are organic compunds (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids) therefore are dependent upon other life forms for survival.
  6. ___________ is the sum total of all the chemical reactions that take place in a cell.
  7. Catabolism- are chemical reactions that break down
    complex organic compounds into simpler ones. This reaction releases energy that can drive ________ reaction.
  8. -__________ are chemical reactions that break downcomplex organic compounds into simpler ones. This reaction releases energy that can drive anabolic reaction.
  9. Examples of _____________ reactions:
    ____________ → Pyruvic acid + ATP
    _____ _____→ TCA cycle→ ATP + CO2+ H20
    Fermentation → ATP + other byproducts.
    • 1 catabolic
    • 2 glucose
    • 3 Pyruvic acid
  10. Anabolism: These reactions require ________ to take place. Here simple substances combine to form complex molecules.
  11. Example of anabolism reactions
    amino acid → ___________
    simple sugars → ____________
    • proteins
    • polysaccharides
  12. ___________ __________ (Ea) which is the amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction.
    activation energy
  13. Enzymes ________ the activation energy, and permit the reaction to proceed at a _____ rate at room temperature.
    • lower
    • high
  14. By lowering the activation energy barrier, enzymes allow chemicals to undergo _____________.
  15. Enzymes are biological ________ (proteins) required for cellular reactions. Without enzymes reactions can’t occur fast enough to maintain life processes. Each cell has thousands of enzymes
  16. Respiration- Can be done either ________ or __________
    aerobically or anerobically
  17. Aerobic –requires oxygen and occurs in the _________ and ___________.
    • cytoplasm
    • mitochondria
  18. Aerobic respiration generates a net of __ (__ total) ATP molecules
    • 36
    • 38
  19. Aerobic in bacteria occurs in the _________. Electrons are ultimately passed to molecular oxygen (O2), the terminal electron acceptor, producing ________.
    • membrane
    • water
  20. Anaerobic - is common in _______ and protista and oxygen is not required. (uses electron transport chain)
  21. Anaerobic respiration takes place in the ________ and generates a net of ___ ATP molecules. (number varies however , the ATP yield of anaerobic respiration is less then that of aerobic respiration but more then that of fermentation.)
    • cytoplasm
    • 2
  22. _______ respiration Uses a molecule other then O2 as a terminal electron acceptor. (such as nitrate, nitrite, sulfate)
  23. __________ (does not use electron transport chain) (Book)- metabolic process that stops short of oxidizing glucose or other organic compounds completely, using an organic intermediate such as pyruvate or derivative as a terminal electron acceptor.
  24. Fermentation uses an electron transport chain T/F?
  25. two types of fermentation _______ ________ and _______________
    • lactic acid
    • alcohol
  26. Assuming a sufficient concentration of substrate is available, increasing enzyme concentration will _______ the enzyme reaction rate.
  27. At a constant enzyme concentration and at lower concentrations of substrates, the substrate concentration is the limiting factor. As the substrate concentration increases, the enzme reaction rate ________.
    However, at very high substrate concentrations, the enzymes become saturated with substrate and a higher concentration of substrate does ________the reaction rate.
    • increases
    • not increase