L&P Quiz 1
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the concrete act of speaking
language system shared by a community of speakers-same pronounciation/grammar/vocab/context
If 2 or more varieties are mutually unintelligible, then they are different languages
subdivision of languages and are mutually intelligible. regionally/socially distinctive variety of a language.
linguistic system that underlies a person's use of language in a given time or place, specific to that person.
Facts of All Languages
- a.language is an integral part of human existence
- b.languages are equally complex/capable of expressing ideas
- c.languages capable of expanding
- d.languages change over time
- e. relationship b/n sound and meaning is arbitrary
- f.grammars contain rules of a similar kind
- g. all have vowels, consonants, prosodies
- h. nouns and verbs
- i. semantic properties: male/female, mother/father
- j.syntactic properties: negating, questions, tenses
- k.infinite set of sentences
- l.any normal child can learn any language he/she is exposed to
No connection between form and meaning in majority of words.
property of having two levels of structure: units of primary level are composed of elements of the secondary level
ability to construct/interpret new sentences
occurrence of one sound may reduce the possibility of the occurrence of the other
Human language can be learned. Children can acquire it with no external instruction.
Study of the meaning of language
examines relations between linguistic expressions and the phenomena in the world to which they refer.
refers to what language is about, the concepts that words and linguistic patterns refer to.
communicate or reveal information about the world around us (relationships between objects situated in the world)
more to the meaning of the word than it's dictionary definition
Mental representations or mental images
meaning of expression is not just mental image, since mental images vary from person to person more than meaning does
Meaning and reference
thing a word refers to. meaning involves a relation between language and the world
Meaning, truth conditions, and truth value
knowing the meaning of a sentence involves knowing conditions under which it would be true so explaining the meaning of a sentence can be done by explaining its truth conditions.
Meaning and Language Use
knowing the meaning of an utterance involves knowing how to use it, so conditions on language use also form an important aspect of meaning.
refers to the literal meaning of an expression independent of situational context
extending the meaning of the word (xerox as a noun and verb)
study of language from the point of view of the users: what choices speakers make
don't say too much-get to the point
tell the truth, don't say things without evidence
don't say irrelevant things, don't get off topic
inferences generated from an utterance, inferences tend to be beyond the semantic content of the sentence
Flouting a Maxim
interactional participants not cooperating with other discourse participants
just the act of saying something
doing something by saying it-"you're fired"/ "you're under arrest"
conditions that must be obtained for the valid performance of an illocutionary act. must be qualified to say it.
implicit asuumptions about the world required making an utterance appropriate/meaningful
presuppositions may be described in terms of implication, implying information that was not said
Direct Illocutionary Act
- synctatic form matches the illocutionary force
- shut the door.
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